{-# OPTIONS_GHC -XNoImplicitPrelude #-}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- |
-- Module      :  Data.Dynamic
-- Copyright   :  (c) The University of Glasgow 2001
-- License     :  BSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE)
-- 
-- Maintainer  :  [email protected]
-- Stability   :  experimental
-- Portability :  portable
--
-- The Dynamic interface provides basic support for dynamic types.
-- 
-- Operations for injecting values of arbitrary type into
-- a dynamically typed value, Dynamic, are provided, together
-- with operations for converting dynamic values into a concrete
-- (monomorphic) type.
-- 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

module Data.Dynamic
  (

        -- Module Data.Typeable re-exported for convenience
        module Data.Typeable,

        -- * The @Dynamic@ type
        Dynamic,        -- abstract, instance of: Show, Typeable

        -- * Converting to and from @Dynamic@
        toDyn,          -- :: Typeable a => a -> Dynamic
        fromDyn,        -- :: Typeable a => Dynamic -> a -> a
        fromDynamic,    -- :: Typeable a => Dynamic -> Maybe a
        
        -- * Applying functions of dynamic type
        dynApply,
        dynApp,
        dynTypeRep

  ) where


import Data.Typeable
import Data.Maybe
import Unsafe.Coerce

#ifdef __GLASGOW_HASKELL__
import GHC.Base
import GHC.Show
import GHC.Num
import GHC.Exception
#endif

#ifdef __HUGS__
import Hugs.Prelude
import Hugs.IO
import Hugs.IORef
import Hugs.IOExts
#endif

#ifdef __NHC__
import NHC.IOExtras (IORef,newIORef,readIORef,writeIORef,unsafePerformIO)
#endif

#include "Typeable.h"

-------------------------------------------------------------
--
--              The type Dynamic
--
-------------------------------------------------------------

{-|
  A value of type 'Dynamic' is an object encapsulated together with its type.

  A 'Dynamic' may only represent a monomorphic value; an attempt to
  create a value of type 'Dynamic' from a polymorphically-typed
  expression will result in an ambiguity error (see 'toDyn').

  'Show'ing a value of type 'Dynamic' returns a pretty-printed representation
  of the object\'s type; useful for debugging.
-}
#ifndef __HUGS__
data Dynamic = Dynamic TypeRep Obj
#endif

INSTANCE_TYPEABLE0(Dynamic,dynamicTc,"Dynamic")

instance Show Dynamic where
   -- the instance just prints the type representation.
   showsPrec _ (Dynamic t _) = 
          showString "<<" . 
          showsPrec 0 t   . 
          showString ">>"

#ifdef __GLASGOW_HASKELL__
-- here so that it isn't an orphan:
instance Exception Dynamic
#endif

#ifdef __GLASGOW_HASKELL__
type Obj = Any
 -- Use GHC's primitive 'Any' type to hold the dynamically typed value.
 --
 -- In GHC's new eval/apply execution model this type must not look
 -- like a data type.  If it did, GHC would use the constructor convention 
 -- when evaluating it, and this will go wrong if the object is really a 
 -- function.  Using Any forces GHC to use
 -- a fallback convention for evaluating it that works for all types.
#elif !defined(__HUGS__)
data Obj = Obj
#endif

-- | Converts an arbitrary value into an object of type 'Dynamic'.  
--
-- The type of the object must be an instance of 'Typeable', which
-- ensures that only monomorphically-typed objects may be converted to
-- 'Dynamic'.  To convert a polymorphic object into 'Dynamic', give it
-- a monomorphic type signature.  For example:
--
-- >    toDyn (id :: Int -> Int)
--
toDyn :: Typeable a => a -> Dynamic
toDyn v = Dynamic (typeOf v) (unsafeCoerce v)

-- | Converts a 'Dynamic' object back into an ordinary Haskell value of
-- the correct type.  See also 'fromDynamic'.
fromDyn :: Typeable a
        => Dynamic      -- ^ the dynamically-typed object
        -> a            -- ^ a default value 
        -> a            -- ^ returns: the value of the first argument, if
                        -- it has the correct type, otherwise the value of
                        -- the second argument.
fromDyn (Dynamic t v) def
  | typeOf def == t = unsafeCoerce v
  | otherwise       = def

-- | Converts a 'Dynamic' object back into an ordinary Haskell value of
-- the correct type.  See also 'fromDyn'.
fromDynamic
        :: Typeable a
        => Dynamic      -- ^ the dynamically-typed object
        -> Maybe a      -- ^ returns: @'Just' a@, if the dynamically-typed
                        -- object has the correct type (and @a@ is its value), 
                        -- or 'Nothing' otherwise.
fromDynamic (Dynamic t v) =
  case unsafeCoerce v of 
    r | t == typeOf r -> Just r
      | otherwise     -> Nothing

-- (f::(a->b)) `dynApply` (x::a) = (f a)::b
dynApply :: Dynamic -> Dynamic -> Maybe Dynamic
dynApply (Dynamic t1 f) (Dynamic t2 x) =
  case funResultTy t1 t2 of
    Just t3 -> Just (Dynamic t3 ((unsafeCoerce f) x))
    Nothing -> Nothing

dynApp :: Dynamic -> Dynamic -> Dynamic
dynApp f x = case dynApply f x of 
             Just r -> r
             Nothing -> error ("Type error in dynamic application.\n" ++
                               "Can't apply function " ++ show f ++
                               " to argument " ++ show x)

dynTypeRep :: Dynamic -> TypeRep
dynTypeRep (Dynamic tr _) = tr