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Graham Scan Implementation

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Descriptions of this problem can be found in Real World Haskell, Chapter 3

import Data.List (sortBy)
import Data.Function (on)
 
-- define data `Direction`
data Direction = GoLeft | GoRight | GoStraight
                 deriving (Show, Eq)
 
-- determine direction change via point a->b->c
-- -- define 2D point
data Pt = Pt (Double, Double) deriving (Show, Eq, Ord)
isTurned :: Pt -> Pt -> Pt -> Direction
isTurned (Pt (ax, ay)) (Pt (bx, by)) (Pt (cx, cy)) = case sign of
                    EQ -> GoStraight
                    LT -> GoRight
                    GT -> GoLeft
                    where sign = compare ((bx - ax) * (cy - ay)) 
                                         ((cx - ax) * (by - ay))
 
-- implement Graham scan algorithm
 
-- -- Helper functions
-- -- Find the most button left point
buttonLeft :: [Pt] -> Pt
buttonLeft [] = Pt (1/0, 1/0)
buttonLeft [pt] = pt
buttonLeft (pt:pts) = minY pt (buttonLeft pts) where
    minY (Pt (ax, ay)) (Pt (bx, by))
        | ay > by = Pt (bx, by)
        | ay < by = Pt (ax, ay)
        | ax < bx = Pt (ax, ay)
        | otherwise = Pt (bx, by)
 
-- -- Main
convex :: [Pt] -> [Pt]
convex []   = []
convex [pt] = [pt]
convex [pt0, pt1] = [pt0, pt1]
convex pts = scan [pt0] spts where
    -- Find the most buttonleft point pt0
    pt0 = buttonLeft pts
 
    -- Sort other points `ptx` based on angle <pt0->ptx>
    spts = tail (sortBy (compare `on` compkey pt0) pts) where
        compkey (Pt (ax, ay)) (Pt (bx, by)) = (atan2 (by - ay) (bx - ax),
                                               {-the secondary key make sure collinear points in order-}
                                               abs (bx - ax))
 
    -- Scan the points to find out convex
    -- -- handle the case that all points are collinear
    scan [p0] (p1:ps)
        | isTurned pz p0 p1 == GoStraight = [pz, p0]
        where pz = last ps
 
    scan (x:xs) (y:z:rsts) = case isTurned x y z of
                             GoRight    -> scan xs (x:z:rsts)
                             GoStraight -> scan (x:xs) (z:rsts) -- I choose to skip the collinear points
                             GoLeft     -> scan (y:x:xs) (z:rsts)
    scan xs [z] =  z : xs
 
 
-- Test data
pts1 = [Pt (0,0), Pt (1,0), Pt (2,1), Pt (3,1), Pt (2.5,1), Pt (2.5,0), Pt (2,0)]
--                           (2,1)--(2.5,1)<>(3,1)
--                         ->          |
--                     ----            v
-- (0,0)------->(1,0)--      (2,0)<-(2.5,0)
pts2 = [Pt (1,-2), Pt (-1, 2), Pt (-3, 6), Pt (-7, 3)]
-- -- This case demonstrate a collinear points across the button-left point
--                |-----(-3,6)
--           |-----         ^__
--      <-----                |---
--  (-7,3)                       |
--     |--                      (-1,2)
--       |----                       <--
--           |-------------            |--|
--                        |------------>(1,-2)
pts3 = [Pt (6,0), Pt (5.5,2), Pt (5,2), Pt (0,4), Pt (1,4), Pt (6,4), Pt (0,0)]
-- -- This case demonstrates a consecutive inner points
-- (0,4)<-(1,4)<--------------------(6,4)
--   |                    |-----------^
--   v                  (5,2)<(5.5,2)<-|
-- (0,0)--------------------------->(6,0)
 
pts4 = [Pt (0,0), Pt (0,4), Pt (1,4), Pt (2,3), Pt (6,5), Pt (6,0)]
-- -- This case demonstrates a consecutive inner points
 
-- collinear points
pts5 = [Pt (5,5), Pt (4,4), Pt (3,3), Pt (2,2), Pt (1,1)]
pts6 = reverse pts5


Test

import Test.QuickCheck
import Control.Monad
import Data.List
 
 
convex' = map (\(Pt x) -> x) . convex . map Pt
 
prop_convex n = forAll (replicateM n arbitrary) (\xs -> sort (convex' xs) == sort (convex' (convex' xs)))

The results are:

> quickCheck (prop_convex 0)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 1)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 2)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 3)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 4)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 5)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 10)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 100)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 1000)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.
> quickCheck (prop_convex 10000)
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.