# 99 questions/Solutions/19

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(**) Rotate a list N places to the left.

Hint: Use the predefined functions length and (++).

rotate [] _ = []
rotate l 0 = l
rotate (x:xs) (n+1) = rotate (xs ++ [x]) n
rotate l n = rotate l (length l + n)

(Note that this solution uses n+k-patterns which are removed from Haskell 2010.)

There are two separate cases:

• If n > 0, move the first element to the end of the list n times.
• If n < 0, convert the problem to the equivalent problem for n > 0 by adding the list's length to n.

or using cycle:

rotate xs n = take len . drop (n `mod` len) . cycle \$ xs
where len = length xs

or without mod:

rotate xs n = take (length xs) \$ drop (length xs + n) \$ cycle xs

or

rotate xs n = if n >= 0 then
drop n xs ++ take n xs
else let l = ((length xs) + n) in
drop l xs ++ take l xs

or

rotate xs n | n >= 0 = drop n xs ++ take n xs
| n < 0 = drop len xs ++ take len xs
where len = n+length xs
rotate xs n = drop nn xs ++ take nn xs
where
nn = n `mod` length xs

Using a simple splitAt trick

rotate xs n
| n < 0 = rotate xs (n+len)
| n > len = rotate xs (n-len)
| otherwise = let (f,s) = splitAt n xs in s ++ f
where len = length xs
Without using
length
:
rotate xs n
| n > 0 = (reverse . take n . reverse \$ xs) ++ (reverse . drop n . reverse \$ xs)
| n <= 0 = (drop (negate n) xs) ++ (take (negate n) xs)