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(The link to Bernard Paul Sypniewski's article ``An Introduction to Applicative Universal Grammar'' is no more broken, so I removed the warning text. Also adding link to the athor's linguistics page.)
(Applicative universal grammar: Link to paper comparing combinatory categorial grammar to applicative universal grammar)
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== Natural language processing and combinatory logic ==
 
== Natural language processing and combinatory logic ==
   
=== Applicative universal grammars ===
+
=== Applicative universal grammar ===
   
 
* A Haskell application for natural language parsing, based on ''Applicative Universal Grammar'' (AUG) is described in Mark P. Jones', Paul Hudak's and Sebastian Shaumyan's [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/jones95using.html Using Types to Parse Natural Language]. The Haskell source code given by the article is full, it can be run by Gofer, and after a few modification, by GHC too (''transpose'' must be explictly imported from standard library module ''Data.List'', and class ''Text'' renamed to ''Show'').
 
* A Haskell application for natural language parsing, based on ''Applicative Universal Grammar'' (AUG) is described in Mark P. Jones', Paul Hudak's and Sebastian Shaumyan's [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/jones95using.html Using Types to Parse Natural Language]. The Haskell source code given by the article is full, it can be run by Gofer, and after a few modification, by GHC too (''transpose'' must be explictly imported from standard library module ''Data.List'', and class ''Text'' renamed to ''Show'').
 
* A more detailed description of the topic of this previous article described in Sebastian Shaumyan and Paul Hudak's [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/510871.html Linguistic, Philosophical, and Pragmatic Aspects of Type-Directed Natural Language Parsing]
 
* A more detailed description of the topic of this previous article described in Sebastian Shaumyan and Paul Hudak's [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/510871.html Linguistic, Philosophical, and Pragmatic Aspects of Type-Directed Natural Language Parsing]
 
* Bernard Paul Sypniewski's article [http://elvis.rowan.edu/~bps/ling/introAUG.pdf An Introduction to Applicative Universal Grammar]. The same author has also an [http://elvis.rowan.edu/~bps/ling/ling.htm entire homepage for the topic]. As an article describing what AUG is, see also Shaumyan's [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/shaumyan98two.html Two Paradigms of Linguistics: The Semiotic versus Non-Semiotic Paradigm].
 
* Bernard Paul Sypniewski's article [http://elvis.rowan.edu/~bps/ling/introAUG.pdf An Introduction to Applicative Universal Grammar]. The same author has also an [http://elvis.rowan.edu/~bps/ling/ling.htm entire homepage for the topic]. As an article describing what AUG is, see also Shaumyan's [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/shaumyan98two.html Two Paradigms of Linguistics: The Semiotic versus Non-Semiotic Paradigm].
  +
* [http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/573937.html Long-Distance Dependencies and Applicative Universal Grammar] (written by Sebastian Shaumyan and Frédérique Segond) compares (presenting some advantages of the latter)
  +
** combinatory categorial grammar
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** applicative universal grammar
   
=== Categorial grammars ===
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=== Categorial grammar ===
   
 
A general summary of modern semantic theories developed in the century
 
A general summary of modern semantic theories developed in the century

Revision as of 12:18, 16 July 2006

Contents


1 Portals and other huge resorces

Peter Ljunglöf's many publications on natural language processing, parsing, formal semantics. Many of them uses Haskell, and there are downloadable Haskell sources too.

Jan van Eijck's page contains a huge amount of materials on logic and language:

  • computational linguistics
  • logics (e.g. dynamic epistemic modelling)

There are many Haskell resources, too.

2 Natural language processing and combinatory logic

2.1 Applicative universal grammar

2.2 Categorial grammar

A general summary of modern semantic theories developed in the century is provided by Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics: an introduction.

Gary Hardegree's portal-rich page provides a lot of materials on logic and linguistics, among them

The Combinatory Categorial Grammar Site contains links, papers (both introductory and developed) and software (OpenNLP open source projects, related to natural language processing, and OpenCCG)

On natural languages relating to combinatory logic, see also

3 Game theoretic semantics

Game theoretic semantics presents an interesting concept of truth -- in another way than that of Tarski. Its connections to computer science and computer languages is described in Wikipedia's Game semantics article. Merlijn Sevenster's Game theoretical semantics and -logic is a good introductory material too.

Chiaki Ohkura's The Semantics of Metaphor in the Game Theoretic Semantics with at Least Two Coordination Equilibria article tries to catch the concept of metaphor.

3.1 Relatedness to linear logic

The Wikipedia article mentions also the relatedness of game theoretic semantics to linear logic. Philip Wadler's page on linear logic describes the topic and its relatedness to many concepts concerning Haskell. A taste of linear logic can serve as an introductory article.

4 Parsing natural languages

Gordon J. Pace: Monadic Compositional Parsing with Context Using Maltese as a Case Study, see its context too.

5 Other functional or Haskell-related approaches to linguistics

  • From Aarne Ranta's homepage
    GF is a compiler and grammatical programming environment written entirely in Haskell, with an interactive interpreter and two GUI interfaces, one written in Fudgets and another written in Java. GF grammars are written in a subset of Haskell and compile into an internal GF format that may be used as embedded parsers in Haskell, parsers in Java (with an embedded Java interpreter gfc2java.jar) and subsequently converted to applets (Gramlets). (GF-Haskell to Java translation is performed through an Open Agent Architecture--the original .NET, see GF OAA.) The GF grammatical formalism handles linguistic entities (morphemes, etc.) using type theory: an approach especially suited to machine translation of controlled natural languages. The Grammar Resource Library, a set of basic grammars for Danish, English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish and Swedish, is available as a separate download. GF has been used to translate a fragment of C code to JVM (see GFCC (PDF document)).
  • Functional Morphology
  • The natural language processing blog written by Hal Daume III.