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Applications and libraries/Linguistics

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1 Portals and other huge resorces

Peter Ljunglöf's many publications on natural language processing, parsing, formal semantics. Many of them uses Haskell, and there are downloadable Haskell sources too.

Jan van Eijck's page contains a huge amount of materials on logic and language:

  • computational linguistics
  • logics (e.g. dynamic epistemic modelling)

There are many Haskell resources, too.

2 Natural language processing and combinatory logic

2.1 Applicative universal grammar

Now it has got its own HaskellWiki page.

2.2 Categorial grammar

A general summary of modern semantic theories developed in the century is provided by Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics: an introduction.

Gary Hardegree's portal-rich page provides a lot of materials on logic and linguistics, among them

The Combinatory Categorial Grammar Site contains links, papers (both introductory and developed) and software (OpenNLP open source projects, related to natural language processing, and OpenCCG)

On natural languages relating to combinatory logic, see also

3 Game theoretic semantics

Game theoretic semantics presents an interesting concept of truth -- in another way than that of Tarski. Its connections to computer science and computer languages is described in Wikipedia's Game semantics article. Merlijn Sevenster's Game theoretical semantics and -logic is a good introductory material too.

Chiaki Ohkura's The Semantics of Metaphor in the Game Theoretic Semantics with at Least Two Coordination Equilibria article tries to catch the concept of metaphor.

3.1 Relatedness to linear logic

The Wikipedia article mentions also the relatedness of game theoretic semantics to linear logic. Philip Wadler's page on linear logic describes the topic and its relatedness to many concepts concerning Haskell. A taste of linear logic can serve as an introductory article.

4 Parsing natural languages

Gordon J. Pace: Monadic Compositional Parsing with Context Using Maltese as a Case Study, see its context too.

5 Other functional or Haskell-related approaches to linguistics

  • From Aarne Ranta's homepage
    GF is a compiler and grammatical programming environment written entirely in Haskell, with an interactive interpreter and two GUI interfaces, one written in Fudgets and another written in Java. GF grammars are written in a subset of Haskell and compile into an internal GF format that may be used as embedded parsers in Haskell, parsers in Java (with an embedded Java interpreter gfc2java.jar) and subsequently converted to applets (Gramlets). (GF-Haskell to Java translation is performed through an Open Agent Architecture--the original .NET, see GF OAA.) The GF grammatical formalism handles linguistic entities (morphemes, etc.) using type theory: an approach especially suited to machine translation of controlled natural languages. The Grammar Resource Library, a set of basic grammars for Danish, English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish and Swedish, is available as a separate download. GF has been used to translate a fragment of C code to JVM (see GFCC (PDF document)).
  • Functional Morphology
  • The natural language processing blog written by Hal Daume III.