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putStrLn contents
 
putStrLn contents
 
hClose h
 
hClose h
  +
</hask>
  +
  +
The same program, with some higher-lever functions:
  +
<hask>
  +
main = do
  +
contents <- readFile "c:\\test.txt"
  +
putStrLn contents
 
</hask>
 
</hask>
 
=== Writing to files ===
 
=== Writing to files ===

Revision as of 16:51, 25 February 2007

We need to start a GOOD (aka, not a PLEAC clone) Haskell cookbook.

This page is based on the Scheme Cookbook at http://schemecookbook.org/Cookbook/WebHome

Contents

1 GHCi/Hugs

1.1 GHCi interaction

To start GHCi from a command prompt, simply type `ghci'

   $ ghci
      ___         ___ _
     / _ \ /\  /\/ __(_)
    / /_\// /_/ / /  | |      GHC Interactive, version 6.6, for Haskell 98.
   / /_\\/ __  / /___| |      http://www.haskell.org/ghc/
   \____/\/ /_/\____/|_|      Type :? for help.
   
   Loading package base ... linking ... done.
   Prelude>

Prelude is the "base" library of Haskell.

To create variables at the GHCi prompt, use `let'

Prelude> let x = 5
Prelude> x
5
Prelude> let y = 3
Prelude> y
3
Prelude> x + y
8

2 Types

To check the type of an expression or function, use the command `:t'

Prelude> :t x
x :: Integer
Prelude> :t y
y :: Integer

Haskell has the following types defined in the Standard Prelude.

    Int         -- bounded, word-sized integers
    Integer     -- unbounded integers
    Double      -- floating point values
    Char        -- characters
    String      -- strings
    ()          -- the unit type
    Bool        -- booleans
    [a]         -- lists
    (a,b)       -- tuples / product types
    Either a b  -- sum types
    Maybe a     -- optional values

3 Strings

3.1 Input

Strings can be read as input using getLine.

Prelude> getLine
Foo bar baz
"Foo bar baz"

3.2 Output

Strings can be output in a number of different ways.

Prelude> putStr "Foo"
FooPrelude>

As you can see, putStr does not include the newline character `\n'. We can either use putStr like this:

Prelude> putStr "Foo\n"
Foo

Or use putStrLn, which is already in the Standard Prelude

Prelude> putStrLn "Foo"
Foo

We can also use print to print a string, including the quotation marks.

Prelude> print "Foo"
"Foo"

3.3 Concatenation

Concatenation of strings is done with the `++' operator.

Prelude> "foo" ++ "bar"
"foobar"

4 Numbers

Numbers in Haskell can be of the type
Int, Integer, Float, Double, or Rational
.

4.1 Random numbers

5 Dates and time

Use System.Time.getClockTime to get a properly formatted date stamp.

Prelude> System.Time.getClockTime
Wed Feb 21 20:05:35 CST 2007

6 Lists

Haskell has all of the general list manipulation functions.

Prelude> head [1,2,3]
1
 
Prelude> tail [1,2,3]
[2,3]
 
Prelude> length [1,2,3]
3

7 Pattern matching

Haskell does implicit pattern matching.

A good example of pattern matching is done in the fact function for finding a factorial.

fact :: Integer -> Integer
fact 0 = 1
fact n = n * fact (n - 1)
In this function,
fact :: Integer -> Integer
is the functions type definition. The next line,
fact 0 = 1
is a pattern match, so when the argument to the function fact is 0, the return value is 1.

The 3rd and final line of this function is another pattern match, which says that, whatever number was entered as the argument, is multiplied by the factorial of that number, minus 1. Notice this function is recursive.

Pattern matching in Haskell evaluates the patterns in the order they are written, so
fact 0 = 1
is evaluated before
fact n = n * fact (n - 1)
.

8 Arrays

9 Files

9.1 Simple IO

Using
interact :: (String -> String) -> IO ()
, you can easily do things with stdin and stdout.

A program to sum up numbers:

main = interact $ show . sum . map read . lines

A program that adds line numbers to each line:

main = interact numberLines
numberLines = unlines . zipWith combine [1..] . lines
 where combine lineNumber text = concat [show lineNumber, " ", text]

9.2 Reading from files

The System.IO library contains the functions needed for file IO. The program below displays the contents of the file c:\test.txt.

    import System.IO
       
    main = do
        h <- openFile "c:\\test.txt" ReadMode
        contents <- hGetContents h
        putStrLn contents
        hClose h

The same program, with some higher-lever functions:

main = do
  contents <- readFile "c:\\test.txt"
  putStrLn contents

9.3 Writing to files

9.4 Creating new files

10 Network Programming

11 XML

11.1 Parsing XML

12 Databases

12.1 MySQL

12.2 PostgreSQL

12.3 SQLite

13 FFI

13.1 How to interface with C