# Euler problems/181 to 190

### From HaskellWiki

Henrylaxen (Talk | contribs) (solution to problem 185) |
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<haskell> |
<haskell> |
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problem_184 = undefined |
problem_184 = undefined |
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+ | </haskell> |
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+ | |||

+ | == [http://projecteuler.net/index.php?section=problems&id=185 Problem 185] == |
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+ | Number Mind |
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+ | |||

+ | Solution: |
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+ | |||

+ | This approach does '''NOT''' solve the problem in under a minute, |
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+ | unless of course you are extremely lucky. The best time I've |
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+ | seen so far has been about 76 seconds. Before I came up with |
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+ | this code, I tried to search for the solution by generating a |
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+ | list of all possible solutions based on the information given in |
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+ | the guesses. This was feasible with the 5 digit problem, but |
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+ | completely intractable with the 16 digit problem. The approach |
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+ | here, simple yet effective, is to make a random guess, and then |
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+ | vary each digit in the guess from [0..9], generating a score of |
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+ | how well the guess matched the given numbermind clues. You then |
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+ | ''improve'' the guess by selecting those digits that had a unique |
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+ | low score. It turns out this approach converges rather quickly, |
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+ | but can often be stuck in cycles, so we test for this and try a |
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+ | differenct random first guess if a cycle is detected. Once you |
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+ | run the program, you might have time for a cup of coffee, or |
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+ | maybe even a dinner. HenryLaxen 2008-03-12 |
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+ | |||

+ | <haskell> |
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+ | |||

+ | import Data.List |
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+ | import Control.Monad |
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+ | import Data.Char |
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+ | import System.Random |
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+ | |||

+ | type Mind = [([Char],Int)] |
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+ | |||

+ | values :: [Char] |
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+ | values = "0123456789" |
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+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | score :: [Char] -> [Char] -> Int |
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+ | score guess answer = foldr (\(a,b) y -> if a == b then y+1 else y) 0 |
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+ | (zip guess answer) |
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+ | |||

+ | scores :: Mind -> [Char] -> [Int] |
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+ | scores m g = map (\x -> abs ((snd x) - score (fst x) g)) m |
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+ | |||

+ | scoreMind :: Mind -> [Char] -> Int |
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+ | scoreMind m g = sum $ scores m g |
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+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | ex1 :: Mind |
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+ | ex1 = |
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+ | [("90342",2), |
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+ | ("39458",2), |
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+ | ("51545",2), |
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+ | ("34109",1), |
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+ | ("12531",1), |
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+ | ("70794",0)] |
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+ | |||

+ | ex2 :: Mind |
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+ | ex2 = |
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+ | [ |
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+ | ("5616185650518293",2), |
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+ | ("3847439647293047",1), |
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+ | ("5855462940810587",3), |
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+ | ("9742855507068353",3), |
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+ | ("4296849643607543",3), |
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+ | ("3174248439465858",1), |
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+ | ("4513559094146117",2), |
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+ | ("7890971548908067",3), |
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+ | ("8157356344118483",1), |
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+ | ("2615250744386899",2), |
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+ | ("8690095851526254",3), |
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+ | ("6375711915077050",1), |
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+ | ("6913859173121360",1), |
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+ | ("6442889055042768",2), |
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+ | ("2321386104303845",0), |
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+ | ("2326509471271448",2), |
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+ | ("5251583379644322",2), |
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+ | ("1748270476758276",3), |
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+ | ("4895722652190306",1), |
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+ | ("3041631117224635",3), |
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+ | ("1841236454324589",3), |
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+ | ("2659862637316867",2)] |
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+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | guesses :: [Char] -> Int -> [[Char]] |
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+ | guesses str pos = [ left ++ n:(tail right) | n<-values] |
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+ | where (left,right) = splitAt pos str |
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+ | |||

+ | bestGuess :: Mind -> [[Char]] -> [Int] |
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+ | bestGuess mind guesses = |
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+ | let scores = map (scoreMind mind) guesses |
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+ | bestScore = minimum scores |
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+ | bestGuesses = findIndices (==bestScore) scores |
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+ | in bestGuesses |
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+ | |||

+ | iterateGuesses :: Mind -> [Char] -> [Char] |
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+ | iterateGuesses mind value = |
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+ | let allguesses = map (guesses value) [0..(length value)-1] |
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+ | mins = map (bestGuess mind) allguesses |
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+ | in nextguess value mins |
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+ | |||

+ | nextguess :: [Char] -> [[Int]] -> [Char] |
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+ | nextguess prev mins = |
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+ | let choose x = if length (snd x) == 1 then intToDigit ((snd x)!!0) else fst x |
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+ | both = zip prev mins |
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+ | in foldr (\x y -> (choose x) : y) "" both |
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+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | iterateMind :: Mind -> [Char] -> [([Char], Int)] |
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+ | iterateMind mind n = |
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+ | let a = drop 2 $ inits $ iterate (iterateGuesses mind) n |
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+ | b = last $ takeWhile (\x -> (last x) `notElem` (init x)) a |
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+ | c = map (scoreMind mind) b |
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+ | in zip b c |
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+ | |||

+ | |||

+ | randomStart :: (Num a, Enum a) => a -> IO [Char] |
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+ | randomStart n = mapM (\_ -> getStdRandom (randomR ('0','9'))) [1..n] |
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+ | |||

+ | main :: IO () |
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+ | main = do |
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+ | let ex = ex1 |
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+ | x <- randomStart (length (fst (head ex))) |
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+ | let y = iterateMind ex x |
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+ | let done = (snd (last y) == 0) |
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+ | when done (putStrLn $ (fst.last) y) |
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+ | unless done main |
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+ | |||

</haskell> |
</haskell> |

## Revision as of 13:39, 12 March 2008

## Contents |

## 1 Problem 181

Investigating in how many ways objects of two different colours can be grouped.

## 2 Problem 182

RSA encryption.

Solution:

fun a1 b1 = sum [ e | e <- [2..a*b-1], gcd e (a*b) == 1, gcd (e-1) a == 2, gcd (e-1) b == 2 ] where a = a1-1 b = b1-1 problem_182 = fun 1009 3643

## 3 Problem 183

Maximum product of parts.

Solution:

-- Does the decimal expansion of p/q terminate? terminating p q = 1 == reduce [2,5] (q `div` gcd p q) where reduce [] n = n reduce (x:xs) n | n `mod` x == 0 = reduce (x:xs) (n `div` x) | otherwise = reduce xs n -- The expression (round $ fromIntegral n / e) computes the integer k -- for which (n/k)^k is at a maximum. Also note that, given a rational number -- r and a natural number k, the decimal expansion of r^k terminates if -- and only if the decimal expansion of r does. answer = sum [if terminating n (round $ fromIntegral n / e) then -n else n | n <- [5 .. 10^4]] where e = exp 1 main = print answer

## 4 Problem 184

Triangles containing the origin.

Solution:

problem_184 = undefined

## 5 Problem 185

Number Mind

Solution:

This approach does **NOT** solve the problem in under a minute,
unless of course you are extremely lucky. The best time I've
seen so far has been about 76 seconds. Before I came up with
this code, I tried to search for the solution by generating a
list of all possible solutions based on the information given in
the guesses. This was feasible with the 5 digit problem, but
completely intractable with the 16 digit problem. The approach
here, simple yet effective, is to make a random guess, and then
vary each digit in the guess from [0..9], generating a score of
how well the guess matched the given numbermind clues. You then
*improve* the guess by selecting those digits that had a unique
low score. It turns out this approach converges rather quickly,
but can often be stuck in cycles, so we test for this and try a
differenct random first guess if a cycle is detected. Once you
run the program, you might have time for a cup of coffee, or
maybe even a dinner. HenryLaxen 2008-03-12

import Data.List import Control.Monad import Data.Char import System.Random type Mind = [([Char],Int)] values :: [Char] values = "0123456789" score :: [Char] -> [Char] -> Int score guess answer = foldr (\(a,b) y -> if a == b then y+1 else y) 0 (zip guess answer) scores :: Mind -> [Char] -> [Int] scores m g = map (\x -> abs ((snd x) - score (fst x) g)) m scoreMind :: Mind -> [Char] -> Int scoreMind m g = sum $ scores m g ex1 :: Mind ex1 = [("90342",2), ("39458",2), ("51545",2), ("34109",1), ("12531",1), ("70794",0)] ex2 :: Mind ex2 = [ ("5616185650518293",2), ("3847439647293047",1), ("5855462940810587",3), ("9742855507068353",3), ("4296849643607543",3), ("3174248439465858",1), ("4513559094146117",2), ("7890971548908067",3), ("8157356344118483",1), ("2615250744386899",2), ("8690095851526254",3), ("6375711915077050",1), ("6913859173121360",1), ("6442889055042768",2), ("2321386104303845",0), ("2326509471271448",2), ("5251583379644322",2), ("1748270476758276",3), ("4895722652190306",1), ("3041631117224635",3), ("1841236454324589",3), ("2659862637316867",2)] guesses :: [Char] -> Int -> [[Char]] guesses str pos = [ left ++ n:(tail right) | n<-values] where (left,right) = splitAt pos str bestGuess :: Mind -> [[Char]] -> [Int] bestGuess mind guesses = let scores = map (scoreMind mind) guesses bestScore = minimum scores bestGuesses = findIndices (==bestScore) scores in bestGuesses iterateGuesses :: Mind -> [Char] -> [Char] iterateGuesses mind value = let allguesses = map (guesses value) [0..(length value)-1] mins = map (bestGuess mind) allguesses in nextguess value mins nextguess :: [Char] -> [[Int]] -> [Char] nextguess prev mins = let choose x = if length (snd x) == 1 then intToDigit ((snd x)!!0) else fst x both = zip prev mins in foldr (\x y -> (choose x) : y) "" both iterateMind :: Mind -> [Char] -> [([Char], Int)] iterateMind mind n = let a = drop 2 $ inits $ iterate (iterateGuesses mind) n b = last $ takeWhile (\x -> (last x) `notElem` (init x)) a c = map (scoreMind mind) b in zip b c randomStart :: (Num a, Enum a) => a -> IO [Char] randomStart n = mapM (\_ -> getStdRandom (randomR ('0','9'))) [1..n] main :: IO () main = do let ex = ex1 x <- randomStart (length (fst (head ex))) let y = iterateMind ex x let done = (snd (last y) == 0) when done (putStrLn $ (fst.last) y) unless done main