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Euler problems/41 to 50

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1 Problem 41

What is the largest n-digit pandigital prime that exists?

Solution:

import Data.List
isprime a = isprimehelper a primes
isprimehelper a (p:ps)
    | a == 1         = False
    | p*p > a        = True
    | a `mod` p == 0 = False
    | otherwise      = isprimehelper a ps
primes = 2 : filter isprime [3,5..]
problem_41 = 
    head . filter isprime . filter fun $ [7654321,7654320..]
    where
    fun = (=="1234567") . sort . show

2 Problem 42

How many triangle words can you make using the list of common English words?

Solution:

import Data.Char
trilist = takeWhile (<300) (scanl1 (+) [1..])
wordscore xs = sum $ map (subtract 64 . ord) xs
problem_42 megalist = 
    length [ wordscore a | a <- megalist,
                           elem (wordscore a) trilist ]
main = do f <- readFile "words.txt"
          let words = read $"["++f++"]"
          print $ problem_42 words

3 Problem 43

Find the sum of all pandigital numbers with an unusual sub-string divisibility property.

Solution:

import Data.List
l2n :: (Integral a) => [a] -> a
l2n = foldl' (\a b -> 10*a+b) 0
 
swap (a,b) = (b,a)
 
explode :: (Integral a) => a -> [a]
explode = 
    unfoldr (\a -> if a==0 then Nothing else Just $ swap $ quotRem a 10)
problem_43 = sum . map l2n . map (\s -> head ([0..9] \\ s):s) 
                 . filter (elem 0) . genSeq [] $ [17,13,11,7,5,3,2]
 
mults mi ma n = takeWhile (< ma) . dropWhile (<mi) . iterate (+n) $ n
 
sequ xs ys = tail xs == init ys
 
addZ n xs = replicate (n - length xs) 0 ++ xs
 
genSeq [] (x:xs) = genSeq (filter (not . doub) 
                           . map (addZ 3 . reverse . explode)
                           $ mults 9 1000 x)
                          xs
genSeq ys (x:xs) = 
    genSeq (do m <- mults 9 1000 x
               let s = addZ 3 . reverse . explode $ m
               y <- filter (sequ s . take 3) $ filter (not . elem (head s)) ys
               return (head s:y))
           xs
genSeq ys [] = ys
 
doub xs = nub xs /= xs

4 Problem 44

Find the smallest pair of pentagonal numbers whose sum and difference is pentagonal.

Solution:

import Data.Set
problem_44 = head solutions
  where solutions = [a-b | a <- penta,
                           b <- takeWhile (<a) penta,
                           isPenta (a-b),
                           isPenta (b+a) ]
    isPenta = (`member` fromList  penta)
    penta = [(n * (3*n-1)) `div` 2 | n <- [1..5000]]

5 Problem 45

After 40755, what is the next triangle number that is also pentagonal and hexagonal?

Solution:

isPent n = (af == 0) && ai `mod` 6 == 5
  where (ai, af) = properFraction . sqrt $ 1 + 24 * (fromInteger n)
 
problem_45 = head [x | x <- scanl (+) 1 [5,9..], x > 40755, isPent x]

6 Problem 46

What is the smallest odd composite that cannot be written as the sum of a prime and twice a square?

Solution:

This solution is inspired by exercise 3.70 in Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, (2nd ed.).

millerRabinPrimality on the Prime_numbers page

import Data.List
isPrime x | x==3      = True
          | otherwise = millerRabinPrimality x 2
problem_46 = find (\x -> not (isPrime x) && check x) [3,5..]
  where 
    check x = not . any isPrime
                  . takeWhile (>0)
                  . map (\y -> x - 2 * y * y) $ [1..]

Alternate Solution:

Considering that the answer is less than 6000, there's no need for fancy solutions. The following is as fast as most C++ solutions.

primes :: [Int]
primes = 2 : filter isPrime [3, 5..]
 
isPrime :: Int -> Bool
isPrime n = all (not . divides n) $ takeWhile (\p -> p^2 <= n) primes
    where
      divides n p = n `mod` p == 0
 
compOdds :: [Int]
compOdds = filter (not . isPrime) [3, 5..]
 
verifConj :: Int -> Bool
verifConj n = any isPrime (takeWhile (>0) $ map (\i -> n - 2*i*i) [1..])
 
problem_46 :: Int
problem_46 = head $ filter (not . verifConj) compOdds

7 Problem 47

Find the first four consecutive integers to have four distinct primes factors.

Solution:

import Data.List
problem_47 = find (all ((==4).snd)) . map (take 4) . tails 
                 . zip [1..] . map (length . factors) $ [1..]
fstfac x = [(head a ,length a) | a <- group $ primeFactors x]
fac [(x,y)] = [x^a | a <- [0..y]]
fac (x:xs) = [a*b | a <- fac [x], b <- fac xs]
factors x = fac $ fstfac x
primes = 2 : filter ((==1) . length . primeFactors) [3,5..]
 
primeFactors n = factor n primes
  where factor _ [] = []
        factor m (p:ps) | p*p > m        = [m]
                        | m `mod` p == 0 = p : [m `div` p]
                        | otherwise      = factor m ps

8 Problem 48

Find the last ten digits of 11 + 22 + ... + 10001000.

Solution: If the problem were more computationally intensive, modular exponentiation might be appropriate. With this problem size the naive approach is sufficient.

powMod on the Prime_numbers page

problem_48 = flip mod limit $ sum [powMod limit n n | n <- [1..1000]]
    where limit=10^10

9 Problem 49

Find arithmetic sequences, made of prime terms, whose four digits are permutations of each other.

Solution: millerRabinPrimality on the Prime_numbers page

import Control.Monad
import Data.List
isPrime x
    | x==3      = True
    | otherwise = millerRabinPrimality x 2
 
primes4 = takeWhile (<10000) $ dropWhile (<1000) primes
 
problem_49 = do a <- primes4
                b <- dropWhile (<= a) primes4
                guard (sort $ show a == sort $ show b)
                let c = 2 * b - a
                guard (c < 10000)
                guard (sort $ show a == sort $ show c)
                guard $ isPrime c 
                return (a, b, c)
 
primes = 2 : filter (\x -> isPrime x ) [3..]

10 Problem 50

Which prime, below one-million, can be written as the sum of the most consecutive primes?

Solution: (prime and isPrime not included)

import Control.Monad
findPrimeSum ps 
    | isPrime sumps = Just sumps
    | otherwise     = findPrimeSum (tail ps) `mplus` findPrimeSum (init ps)
    where
    sumps = sum ps
 
problem_50 = findPrimeSum $ take 546 primes