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Haskell for multicores

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GHC Haskell comes with a large set of libraries and tools for building programs that exploit multicore architectures.

This site attempts to document all our available information on exploiting such hardware with Haskell.

Throughout, we focus on exploiting shared-memory SMP systems, with aim of lowering absolute wall clock times. The machines we target are typical 2x to 32x desktop multicore machine, on which vanilla GHC will run.

Contents


1 Introduction

To get an idea of what we aim to do -- reduce running times by exploiting more cores -- here's a naive "hello, world" of parallel programs: parallel, naive fib. It simply tells us whether or not the SMP runtime is working:

    import Control.Parallel
    import Control.Monad
    import Text.Printf
 
    cutoff = 35
 
    fib' :: Int -> Integer
    fib' 0 = 0
    fib' 1 = 1
    fib' n = fib' (n-1) + fib' (n-2)
 
    fib :: Int -> Integer
    fib n | n < cutoff = fib' n
          | otherwise  = r `par` (l `pseq` l + r)
     where
        l = fib (n-1)
        r = fib (n-2)
 
    main = forM_ [0..45] $ \i ->
                printf "n=%d => %d\n" i (fib i)

We compile it with the `-threaded` flag:

   $ ghc -O2 -threaded --make fib.hs
   [1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( fib.hs, fib.o )
   Linking fib ...

And run it with:

   +RTS -Nx

where 'x' is the number of cores you have (or a slightly higher value). Here, on a quad core linux system:

   ./fib +RTS -N4  76.81s user 0.75s system 351% cpu 22.059 total

So we were able to use 3.5/4 of the available cpu time. And this is typical, most problems aren't easily scalable, and we must trade off work on more cores, for more overhead with communication.

1.1 Examples

1.2 Further reading

2 Thread primitives

Control.Concurrent Control.Concurrent

  • forkIO

Todo

2.1 Further reading

3 Synchronisation with locks

Control.Concurrent.MVar

  • MVar

Todo

3.1 Further reading

4 Message passing channels

Control.Concurrent.Chan

  • Chan

Todo

4.1 Examples

4.2 Further reading

5 Lock-free synchronisation

Software Transactional Memory

  • STM

Todo

5.1 Further reading

6 Asynchronous messages

Control.Exception:asynchronous

  • Async exceptions


Todo

6.1 Examples

6.2 Further reading

7 Parallelism strategies

Control.Parallel

  • Parallel, pure strategies

Todo

7.1 Further reading

8 Data parallel arrays

Data Parallel Arrays

Todo

8.1 Further reading

9 Foreign languages calls and concurrency

Non-blocking foreign calls in concurrent threads.

10 Profiling and measurement

   +RTS -sstderr

10.1 Further reading

Todo