Haskell in web browser
2 Basics of programming for web browser
It was necessary to convert these definitions to Haskell function declarations to make them available to Haskell programs for Web browser. The special utility,
2.1.1 DOM interfaces vs. Haskell classes
Web Consortuim's DOM definitions are presented as a hierarchy of interfaces. For example, the Node interface is a parent to the majority of other interfaces, such as Document (direct ancestor), or HTMLElement (not a direct ancestor, but HTMLElement should inherit all properties and methods of Node).
This is achieved by defining Haskell type classes whose hierarchy repeats the hierarchy of DOM interfaces. Thus, we have the CNode and CDocument classes. For each DOM interface, also a phantom data type is defined: TNode, and TDocument correspondingly. Phantom types are assigned to concrete values (references to DOM objects) while type classes are used to constrain types of parameters of functions working with those DOM objects. The CDocument class is defined as:
class CNode a => CDocument a data TNode data TDocument instance CNode TNode instance CDocument TDocument instance CNode TDocument
to reflect inheritance of Document from Node. Accordingly, continuing our example, for HTMLElement, we have:
class CNode a => CElement a class CElement a => CHTMLElement a data THTMLElement instance CElement THTMLElement instance CHTMLElement THTMLElement instance CNode THTMLElement
Below is an example of such type constrained function:
hasChildNodes :: CNode this => this -> CPS c Bool
which corresponds to the hasChildNodes function defined within the Node interface. Any DOM object which is a Node can be passed to this function (by reference) as the
2.1.2 Attributes vs. getters and setters
Within interfaces, DOM specification defines attributes and methods. Attributes are either read-only (such as nodeName of the Node interface) or read-write (such as nodeValue of the same interface). In Haskell bindings, getter (for read-only attributes) and both getter and setter (for read-write attributes) functions are defined in straightforward manner:
get'nodeName :: CNode this => this -> CPS c String set'nodeValue :: CNode zz => String -> zz -> CPS c zz get'nodeValue :: CNode this => this -> CPS c String
Getters always take the object containing an attribute as the first argument,
this, and it is always constrained to the type class corresponding to the DOM interface. Setters always take the value to be set as the first argument, and the object containing the attribute as the second argument. Setters always return reference to the same object where an attribute was set. The latter property allows to concatenate multiple setters in Continuation-passing style, such as:
........$ \he -> (set'id "myid") (set'lang "en") (set'title "Hello")
This whole construction will pass the same object (
he) to the continuation, but continuation will deal with updated object.
The setters in the example above are defined in the DOM.Level2.HTMLElement module.