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Since one pixel fits into one byte, we no longer need the bitpack' function in this version.
 
Since one pixel fits into one byte, we no longer need the bitpack' function in this version.
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  +
== 24 Bit RGB ==
  +
  +
The code can be extended to full RGB with minor changes:
  +
  +
<haskell>
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png :: [[(Int,Int,Int)]] -> B.ByteString
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png dat = B.concat $ hdr : concat [ihdr, imgdat ,iend]
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where height = fromIntegral $ length dat
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width = fromIntegral $ length (head dat)
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ihdr = chunk iHDR $ B.concat
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[ be32 height
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, be32 width
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, be8 8 -- bits per sample (8 for r, 8 for g, 8 for b)
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, be8 2 -- color type (2=rgb)
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, be8 0 -- compression method
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, be8 0 -- filter method
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, be8 0 ] -- interlace method
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imgdat = chunk iDAT (Z.compress imagedata)
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imagedata = B.concat $ map scanline dat
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iend = chunk iEND B.empty
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scanline :: [(Int,Int,Int)] -> B.ByteString
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scanline dat = B.pack (0 : (map fromIntegral $ concatMap (\(r,g,b) -> [r,g,b]) dat))
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</haskell>
  +
  +
By appropriatly changing the color type and adding another Int to the tuple you could have an alpha channel too.

Revision as of 08:21, 15 December 2008


Here is a small library to generate monochrome PNG images. PNG is probably the simplest format with widespread support (ie. in browsers). This library has a function "png" which converts two-dimensional data
[[Bool]]
into a String. Writing the String to a file (ie. with writeFile) creates a PNG file.

This code requires the Zlib package.

{-
A small library for creating monochrome PNG files.
This file is placed into the public domain.
Dependencies: Zlib.
-}
module Png (png) where
import Data.Array
import Data.Bits
import Data.List
import Data.Word
import qualified Codec.Compression.Zlib as Z
import qualified Data.ByteString.Lazy as B
 
be8 :: Word8 -> B.ByteString
be8 x = B.singleton x
 
be32 :: Word32 -> B.ByteString
be32 x = B.pack [fromIntegral (x `shiftR` sh) | sh <- [24,16,8,0]]
 
pack :: String -> B.ByteString
pack xs = B.pack $ map (fromIntegral.fromEnum) xs
 
unpack :: B.ByteString -> String
unpack xs = map (toEnum.fromIntegral) (B.unpack xs)
 
hdr, iHDR, iDAT, iEND :: B.ByteString
hdr = pack "\137\80\78\71\13\10\26\10"
iHDR = pack "IHDR"
iDAT = pack "IDAT"
iEND = pack "IEND"
 
chunk :: B.ByteString -> B.ByteString -> [B.ByteString]
chunk tag xs = [be32 (fromIntegral $ B.length xs), dat, be32 (crc dat)]
    where dat = B.append tag xs
 
-- | Return a monochrome PNG file from a two dimensional bitmap
-- stored in a list of lines represented as a list of booleans.
png :: [[Bool]] -> String
png dat = unpack $ B.concat $ hdr : concat [ihdr, imgdat, iend]
    where height = fromIntegral $ length dat
          width = fromIntegral $ length (head dat)
          ihdr = chunk iHDR (B.concat [
                be32 width, be32 height, be8 1, be8 0, be8 0, be8 0, be8 0])
          imgdat = chunk iDAT (Z.compress imgbits)
          imgbits = B.concat $ map scanline dat
          iend = chunk iEND B.empty
 
scanline :: [Bool] -> B.ByteString
scanline dat = 0 `B.cons` bitpack dat
 
bitpack' :: [Bool] -> Word8 -> Word8 -> B.ByteString
bitpack' [] n b = if b /= 0x80 then B.singleton n else B.empty
bitpack' (x:xs) n b =
    if b == 1
        then v `B.cons` bitpack' xs 0 0x80
        else bitpack' xs v (b `shiftR` 1)
    where v = if x then n else n .|. b
 
bitpack :: [Bool] -> B.ByteString
bitpack xs = bitpack' xs 0 0x80
 
crc :: B.ByteString -> Word32
crc xs = updateCrc 0xffffffff xs `xor` 0xffffffff
 
updateCrc :: Word32 -> B.ByteString -> Word32
updateCrc = B.foldl' crcStep
 
crcStep :: Word32 -> Word8 -> Word32
crcStep crc ch = (crcTab ! n) `xor` (crc `shiftR` 8)
    where n = fromIntegral (crc `xor` fromIntegral ch)
 
crcTab :: Array Word8 Word32
crcTab = array (0,255) $ zip [0..255] $ flip map [0..255] (\n ->
    foldl' (\c k -> if c .&. 1 == 1
                      then 0xedb88320 `xor` (c `shiftR` 1)
                      else c `shiftR` 1) n [0..7])

1 8-bit Grayscale

This code is relatively easy to extend to handle other PNG color formats. For instance, a version that produced 8-bit grayscale instead of 1-bit monochrome would only need to change the png and bitpack functions, as follows:

white, black :: Int
white = 255
black = 0
 
-- | Produces a single grayscale bit given a percent black
gray :: Int -> Int
gray percent = 255 - floor (fromIntegral percent * 2.55)
 
-- | Return a grayscale PNG file from a two dimensional bitmap stored in a list
-- of lines represented as a list of 0-255 integer values.
png :: [[Int]] -> String
png dat = unpack $ B.concat $ hdr : concat [ihdr, imgdat, iend]
     where height = fromIntegral $ length dat
           width = fromIntegral $ length (head dat)
           ihdr = chunk iHDR $ B.concat 
                     [ be32 width
                     , be32 height
                     , be8 8   -- bits per pixel
                     , be8 0   -- color type
                     , be8 0   -- compression method
                     , be8 0   -- filter method
                     , be8 0 ] -- interlace method
           imgdat = chunk iDAT (Z.compress imgbits)
           imgbits = B.concat $ map scanline dat
           iend = chunk iEND B.empty
 
scanline :: [Int] -> B.ByteString
scanline dat = B.pack (0 : map fromIntegral dat)
 
bitpack :: [Int] -> B.ByteString
bitpack = foldr (\x s -> fromIntegral x `B.cons` s) B.empty

Since one pixel fits into one byte, we no longer need the bitpack' function in this version.

2 24 Bit RGB

The code can be extended to full RGB with minor changes:

png :: [[(Int,Int,Int)]] -> B.ByteString
png dat = B.concat $ hdr : concat [ihdr, imgdat ,iend]
     where height = fromIntegral $ length dat
           width = fromIntegral $ length (head dat)
           ihdr = chunk iHDR $ B.concat 
                     [ be32 height
                     , be32 width
                     , be8 8   -- bits per sample (8 for r, 8 for g, 8 for b)
                     , be8 2   -- color type (2=rgb)
                     , be8 0   -- compression method
                     , be8 0   -- filter method
                     , be8 0 ] -- interlace method
           imgdat = chunk iDAT (Z.compress imagedata)
           imagedata = B.concat $ map scanline dat
           iend = chunk iEND B.empty
 
scanline :: [(Int,Int,Int)] -> B.ByteString
scanline dat = B.pack (0 : (map fromIntegral $ concatMap (\(r,g,b) -> [r,g,b]) dat))

By appropriatly changing the color type and adding another Int to the tuple you could have an alpha channel too.