# Logic programming example

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− | = Logic Programming with the List Monad, An Example = |
+ | [[Category:Tutorials]] [[Category:Code]] [[Category:Monad]] |

Using the [[List Monad]] it's possible to rig up a basic logic program, where the bulk of the code simply asserts the shape of the answer rather than worrying about generating the solution space. The below code is a full solution to a relatively simple, but classic, logic puzzle. It uses properties of the List Monad, in a straightforward way, to declaratively assert the answer. |
Using the [[List Monad]] it's possible to rig up a basic logic program, where the bulk of the code simply asserts the shape of the answer rather than worrying about generating the solution space. The below code is a full solution to a relatively simple, but classic, logic puzzle. It uses properties of the List Monad, in a straightforward way, to declaratively assert the answer. |
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− | == The Problem == |
+ | == The problem == |

There is a tribe where all the Male members speak true statements and Female |
There is a tribe where all the Male members speak true statements and Female |
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say they were? |
say they were? |
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− | == Bonus Problem == |
+ | == Bonus problem == |

− | There is a unique solution for hetrosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. Find |
+ | There is a unique solution for heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. Find |

all three solutions. |
all three solutions. |
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Run the code at the bottom of the page :) |
Run the code at the bottom of the page :) |
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− | == The Approach == |
+ | == The approach == |

Use the monadic properties of lists to setup some basic logic programming. |
Use the monadic properties of lists to setup some basic logic programming. |
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For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they |
For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they |
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− | were Female since that would violate axiom 1. Simlarly if the Child is Female |
+ | were Female since that would violate axiom 1. Similarly if the Child is Female |

then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the |
then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the |
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face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of the statement differing |
face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of the statement differing |
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from its logical validity. |
from its logical validity. |
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− | == Data Structures and Imports == |
+ | == Data structures and imports == |

We need to import guard from the Monad module, it culls out unwanted solutions from the solution space. |
We need to import guard from the Monad module, it culls out unwanted solutions from the solution space. |
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</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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− | People are either Male or Female, this represents the contraints of the puzzle. |
+ | People are either Male or Female, this represents the constraints of the puzzle. |

<haskell>data Sex = Male | Female deriving (Eq, Show)</haskell> |
<haskell>data Sex = Male | Female deriving (Eq, Show)</haskell> |
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Line 91: | Line 91: | ||

</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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− | == Verify the Child's Statement == |
+ | == Verify the child's statement == |

childs_statement_is_valid(child_sex, child_described_sex) |
childs_statement_is_valid(child_sex, child_described_sex) |
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Line 102: | Line 102: | ||

</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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− | == Verify Parent 1's Statement == |
+ | == Verify parent 1's statement == |

parent1_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_described_sex) |
parent1_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_described_sex) |
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Line 116: | Line 116: | ||

</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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− | == Verify Parent 2's Statement == |
+ | == Verify parent 2's statement == |

parent2_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_sex, child_described_sex) |
parent2_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_sex, child_described_sex) |
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</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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− | == Use the List Monad to Get the Answer, Declaratively == |
+ | == Use the list monad to get the answer, declaratively == |

Here we use the List Monad to declare the four variables, each ranging over |
Here we use the List Monad to declare the four variables, each ranging over |
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the set [Male, Female]. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4 |
the set [Male, Female]. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4 |
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− | possabilities. The guard statements discard statements that are invalid. We |
+ | possibilities. The guard statements discard statements that are invalid. We |

have four guards, the three described above and an additional guard that |
have four guards, the three described above and an additional guard that |
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asserts the sexuality of the parents. The sexuality assertion is passed in |
asserts the sexuality of the parents. The sexuality assertion is passed in |
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</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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− | == Execute the Program == |
+ | == Execute the program == |

Run the program. We use mapM because we're applying a print in Monadic |
Run the program. We use mapM because we're applying a print in Monadic |
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setting. We use any kind of map because it's possible (due to poor coding) |
setting. We use any kind of map because it's possible (due to poor coding) |
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Line 177: | Line 177: | ||

<haskell> |
<haskell> |
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main = do |
main = do |
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− | putStr "----------- Hetrosexual Couple -----------\n" |
+ | putStrLn "----------- Hetrosexual Couple -----------" |

− | mapM print (solve_puzzle (/=)) |
+ | mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (/=)) |

− | putStr "----------- Gay Couple -----------\n" |
+ | putStrLn "----------- Gay Couple -----------" |

− | mapM print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Male)) |
+ | mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Male)) |

− | putStr "----------- Lesbian Couple -----------\n" |
+ | putStrLn "----------- Lesbian Couple -----------" |

− | mapM print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Female)) |
+ | mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Female)) |

</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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− | = The Full Code = |
+ | == The full code listing == |

<haskell> |
<haskell> |
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Line 210: | Line 210: | ||

Bonus: |
Bonus: |
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− | There is a unique solution for hetrosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. Find |
+ | There is a unique solution for heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. Find |

all three solutions. |
all three solutions. |
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For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they |
For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they |
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− | were Female since that would violate axiom 1. Simlarly if the Child is Female |
+ | were Female since that would violate axiom 1. Similarly if the Child is Female |

then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the |
then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the |
||

face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of statement differing |
face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of statement differing |
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Line 251: | Line 251: | ||

-} |
-} |
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− | -- People are either Male or Female, this represents the contraints of the puzzle. |
+ | -- People are either Male or Female, this represents the constraints of the puzzle. |

data Sex = Male | Female deriving (Eq, Show) |
data Sex = Male | Female deriving (Eq, Show) |
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Here we use the List Monad to declare the four variables, each ranging over |
Here we use the List Monad to declare the four variables, each ranging over |
||

the set [Male, Female]. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4 |
the set [Male, Female]. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4 |
||

− | possabilities. The guard statements discard statements that are invalid. We |
+ | possibilities. The guard statements discard statements that are invalid. We |

have four guards, the three described above and an additional guard that |
have four guards, the three described above and an additional guard that |
||

asserts the parents are not the same sex. |
asserts the parents are not the same sex. |
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Line 346: | Line 346: | ||

-- that the solution could have more than one answer. |
-- that the solution could have more than one answer. |
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main = do |
main = do |
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− | putStr "----------- Hetrosexual Couple -----------\n" |
+ | putStrLn "----------- Hetrosexual Couple -----------" |

− | mapM print (solve_puzzle (/=)) |
+ | mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (/=)) |

− | putStr "----------- Gay Couple -----------\n" |
+ | putStrLn "----------- Gay Couple -----------" |

− | mapM print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Male)) |
+ | mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Male)) |

− | putStr "----------- Lesbian Couple -----------\n" |
+ | putStrLn "----------- Lesbian Couple -----------" |

− | mapM print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Female)) |
+ | mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Female)) |

</haskell> |
</haskell> |

## Revision as of 06:56, 11 February 2010

Using the List Monad it's possible to rig up a basic logic program, where the bulk of the code simply asserts the shape of the answer rather than worrying about generating the solution space. The below code is a full solution to a relatively simple, but classic, logic puzzle. It uses properties of the List Monad, in a straightforward way, to declaratively assert the answer.

## Contents |

## 1 The problem

There is a tribe where all the Male members speak true statements and Female members never speak two true statements in a row, nor two untrue statements in a row. (I apologize for the obvious misogyny).

A researcher comes across a mother, a father, and their child. The mother and father speak English but the child does not. However, the researcher asks the child "Are you a boy?". The child responds but the researcher doesn't understand the response and turns to the parents for a translation.

- Parent 1: "The child said 'I am a boy.'"
- Parent 2: "The child is a girl. The child lied."

What is the sex of parent 1, parent 2, the child, and what sex did the child say they were?

## 2 Bonus problem

There is a unique solution for heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. Find all three solutions.

## 3 Solution

Run the code at the bottom of the page :)

## 4 The approach

Use the monadic properties of lists to setup some basic logic programming. There are four variables in the puzzle: Sex of parent 1, Sex of parent 2, Sex of the child, and the Sex the child said they were. Each of these has two possibilities, which means we've got 2^4 == 16 possible outcomes.

Using List Monads we can realize all 2^4 outcomes in a straightforward fashion. Then it is just a matter of testing each combination to make sure it fits the constraints of the puzzle.

We have two axioms:

- A Male does not lie.
- A Female will never tell two lies or two truths in a row.

And we have three statements (i.e. logical expressions) in the puzzle:

- The child said a single statement, in which they declared their sex.
- Parent 1 said a single statement: "The child said 'I am a a boy'"
- Parent 2 said two statements: "The child is a girl. The child lied."

Each of those three statements is realized as a function. These functions do not test the truth of the statement but rather test its logical validity in the face of the axioms.

For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they were Female since that would violate axiom 1. Similarly if the Child is Female then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of the statement differing from its logical validity.

## 5 Data structures and imports

We need to import guard from the Monad module, it culls out unwanted solutions from the solution space.

import Monad (guard)

People are either Male or Female, this represents the constraints of the puzzle.

data Sex = Male | Female deriving (Eq, Show)

When creating an answer we stuff it into this data structure. This isn't strictly necessary, but it gently introduces structured data types and (below) defining a custom instance of Show.

data PuzzleAnswer = PuzzleAnswer { parent1 :: Sex, parent2 :: Sex, child :: Sex, child_desc :: Sex }

This lets us print out the data structure in a friendly way.

instance Show (PuzzleAnswer) where show pa = "Parent1 is " ++ (show $ parent1 pa) ++ "\n" ++ "Parent2 is " ++ (show $ parent2 pa) ++ "\n" ++ "The child is " ++ (show $ child pa) ++ "\n" ++ "The child said they were " ++ (show $ child_desc pa) ++ "\n"

## 6 Verify the child's statement

childs_statement_is_valid(child_sex, child_described_sex)

The only combination that violates the axioms is (Male, Female) since a Male does not lie. Obviously (Male, Male) and (Female, *) are valid statements.

childs_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Bool childs_statement_is_valid Male Female = False childs_statement_is_valid _ _ = True

## 7 Verify parent 1's statement

parent1_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_described_sex)

Parent 1 said "The child said 'I am a boy'". The only invalid combination is (Male, Female), because that'd imply a Male (the parent) lied. Obviously (Male, Male) is okay because then parent 1 is telling the truth. (Female, *) is valid because there's no way they violated either axiom by speaking a single statement.

parent1_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Bool parent1_statement_is_valid Male Female = False parent1_statement_is_valid _ _ = True

## 8 Verify parent 2's statement

parent2_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_sex, child_described_sex)

Parent 2 said "The child is a girl. The child lied." If Parent 2 is Male then the only way this can be a legal statement is if the chlid is Female and said they were Male. This would mean the child is in fact a girl and the child did in fact lie, two statements which are both true. This corresponds to (Male, Female, Male) being legal.

If Parent2 is Female then (Female, *, Female) are both true. (Female, Male, Female) is true because the first statement is false (the child is a girl) but the second one is true (the child lied -- it said Female when it was Male). (Female, Female, Female) is also legal since the first statement (the child is a girl) is true but the second one is a lie (the child lied -- the child said they were Female and they are Female).

Any other combination will be illegal.

parent2_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Sex -> Bool parent2_statement_is_valid Male Female Male = True parent2_statement_is_valid Female _ Female = True parent2_statement_is_valid _ _ _ = False

## 9 Use the list monad to get the answer, declaratively

Here we use the List Monad to declare the four variables, each ranging over the set [Male, Female]. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4 possibilities. The guard statements discard statements that are invalid. We have four guards, the three described above and an additional guard that asserts the sexuality of the parents. The sexuality assertion is passed in as a function, this lets us reuse the same code for homosexual, gay, and lesbian couples.

The result is a list of tuples listing all possible solutions. There happens to be only one, if there was more than one than the other legal ones would be returned too.

solve_puzzle :: (Sex -> Sex -> Bool) -> [PuzzleAnswer] solve_puzzle sexuality_pred = do parent1 <- [Male, Female] parent2 <- [Male, Female] child <- [Male, Female] child_desc <- [Male, Female] guard $ sexuality_pred parent1 parent2 guard $ childs_statement_is_valid child child_desc guard $ parent1_statement_is_valid parent1 child_desc guard $ parent2_statement_is_valid parent2 child child_desc return $ PuzzleAnswer { parent1=parent1, parent2=parent2, child=child, child_desc=child_desc }

## 10 Execute the program

Run the program. We use mapM because we're applying a print in Monadic setting. We use any kind of map because it's possible (due to poor coding) that the solution could have more than one answer.

main = do putStrLn "----------- Hetrosexual Couple -----------" mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (/=)) putStrLn "----------- Gay Couple -----------" mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Male)) putStrLn "----------- Lesbian Couple -----------" mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Female))

## 11 The full code listing

import Monad (guard) {- Problem: There is a tribe where all the Male members speak true statements and Female members never speak two true statements in a row, nor two untrue statements in a row. (I apologize for the obvious misogyny). A researcher comes across a mother, a father, and their child. The mother and father speak English but the child does not. However, the researcher asks the child "Are you a boy?". The child responds but the researcher doesn't understand the response and turns to the parents for a translation. Parent 1: "The child said 'I am a boy.'" Parent 2: "The child is a girl. The child lied." What is the sex of parent 1, parent 2, the child, and what sex did the child say they were? Bonus: There is a unique solution for heterosexual, gay, and lesbian couples. Find all three solutions. Solution: Run the code :) Approach: Use the monadic properties of lists to setup some basic logic programming. There are four variables in the puzzle: Sex of parent 1, Sex of parent 2, Sex of the child, and the Sex the child said they were. Each of these has two possibilities, which means we've got 2^4 == 16 possible outcomes. Using List Monads we can realize all 2^4 outcomes in a straightforward fashion. Then it is just a matter of testing each combination to make sure it fits the constraints of the puzzle. We have two axioms: 1. A Male does not lie. 2. A Female will never tell two lies or two truths in a row. And we have three statements (i.e. logical expressions) in the puzzle: 1. The child said a single statement, in which they declared their sex. 2. Parent 1 said a single statement: "The child said 'I am a a boy'" 3. Parent 2 said two statements: "The child is a girl. The child lied." Each of those three statements is realized as a function. These functions do not test the truth of the statement but rather test its logical validity in the face of the axioms. For example, if the Child is Male then it is not possible the child said they were Female since that would violate axiom 1. Similarly if the Child is Female then no matter if they lied or told the truth the statement is valid in the face of the axioms, this is an example of the truth of statement differing from its logical validity. -} -- People are either Male or Female, this represents the constraints of the puzzle. data Sex = Male | Female deriving (Eq, Show) -- When creating an answer we stuff it into this data structure data PuzzleAnswer = PuzzleAnswer { parent1 :: Sex, parent2 :: Sex, child :: Sex, child_desc :: Sex } -- This lets us print out the data structure in a friendly way instance Show (PuzzleAnswer) where show pa = "Parent1 is " ++ (show $ parent1 pa) ++ "\n" ++ "Parent2 is " ++ (show $ parent2 pa) ++ "\n" ++ "The child is " ++ (show $ child pa) ++ "\n" ++ "The child said they were " ++ (show $ child_desc pa) ++ "\n" {- childs_statement_is_valid(child_sex, child_described_sex) The only combination that violates the axioms is (Male, Female) since a Male does not lie. Obviously (Male, Male) and (Female, *) are valid statements. -} childs_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Bool childs_statement_is_valid Male Female = False childs_statement_is_valid _ _ = True {- parent1_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_described_sex) Parent 1 said "The child said 'I am a boy'". The only invalid combination is (Male, Female), because that'd imply a Male (the parent) lied. Obviously (Male, Male) is okay because then parent 1 is telling the truth. (Female, *) is dubious because you can't trust a Female. -} parent1_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Bool parent1_statement_is_valid Male Female = False parent1_statement_is_valid _ _ = True {- parent2_statement_is_valid(parent1_sex, child_sex, child_described_sex) Parent 2 said "The child is a girl. The child lied." If Parent 2 is Male then the only way this can be a legal statement is if the chlid is Female and said they were Male. This would mean the child is in fact a girl and the child did in fact lie, two statements which are both true. This corresponds to (Male, Female, Male) being legal. If Parent2 is Female then (Female, *, Female) are both true. (Female, Male, Female) is true because the first statement is false (the child is a girl) but the second one is true (the child lied -- it said Female when it was Male). (Female, Female, Female) is also legal since the first statement (the child is a girl) is true but the second one is a lie (the child lied -- the child said they were Female and they are Female). Any other combination will be illegal. -} parent2_statement_is_valid :: Sex -> Sex -> Sex -> Bool parent2_statement_is_valid Male Female Male = True parent2_statement_is_valid Female _ Female = True parent2_statement_is_valid _ _ _ = False {- Here we use the List Monad to declare the four variables, each ranging over the set [Male, Female]. The List Monad transparently constructs all 2^4 possibilities. The guard statements discard statements that are invalid. We have four guards, the three described above and an additional guard that asserts the parents are not the same sex. The result is a list of tuples listing all possible solutions. There happens to be only one, if there was more than one than the other legal ones would be returned too. -} solve_puzzle :: (Sex -> Sex -> Bool) -> [PuzzleAnswer] solve_puzzle sexuality_pred = do parent1 <- [Male, Female] parent2 <- [Male, Female] child <- [Male, Female] child_desc <- [Male, Female] guard $ sexuality_pred parent1 parent2 guard $ childs_statement_is_valid child child_desc guard $ parent1_statement_is_valid parent1 child_desc guard $ parent2_statement_is_valid parent2 child child_desc return $ PuzzleAnswer { parent1=parent1, parent2=parent2, child=child, child_desc=child_desc } -- Run the program. We use mapM because we're applying a print in Monadic -- setting. We use any kind of map because it's possible (due to poor coding) -- that the solution could have more than one answer. main = do putStrLn "----------- Hetrosexual Couple -----------" mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (/=)) putStrLn "----------- Gay Couple -----------" mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Male)) putStrLn "----------- Lesbian Couple -----------" mapM_ print (solve_puzzle (\x y -> x == y && x == Female))