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This is a stub page for Haskell's OpenGL and GLUT bindings. It is meant as a starting point to replace the outdated and misleading documentation at the
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{{Stub}}
[http://www.haskell.org/HOpenGL-old/ old page].
 
 
First, note that the implementation is far more up-to-date than that old page suggested (originally, it was quite useful, but the page hasn't kept up with the implementation for a long time now).
 
   
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
* [http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/hopengl the HOpenGL mailing list]
 
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/OpenGL/latest/doc/html/ the API docs for the OpenGL binding]
 
   
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/GLUT/latest/doc/html/ the API docs for the GLUT binding]
+
* Starting with 2013.2.0.0, the OpenGL packages are part of the [http://www.haskell.org/platform/ Haskell platform], so you can find the [http://lambda.haskell.org/platform/doc/current/ API documentation] there.
  +
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/ Hackage] hosts the individual OpenGL binding packages, including their latest API documentation:
  +
** [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/OpenGLRaw OpenGLRaw] contains a low-level wrapper around OpenGL, which is basically a 1:1 mapping of the C API.
  +
** [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/GLURaw GLURaw] is similar to OpenGLRaw, just for the GLU part of OpenGL.
  +
** [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/OpenGL OpenGL] is the high-level view on OpenGL, wrapping OpenGLRaw into something more Haskell-like.
  +
** [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/GLUT GLUT] is a binding for the [http://www.opengl.org/resources/libraries/glut/ OpenGL Utility Toolkit].
   
* [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/OpenGL the darcs repo with the sources for the OpenGL binding]
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* The [http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/hopengl HOpenGL mailing list] can be used for all discussions regarding the use of OpenGL from Haskell.
   
* [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/GLUT/ the darcs repo with the sources for the GLUT binding]
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* [https://github.com/ GitHub] hosts the [https://github.com/haskell-opengl/ haskell-opengl] organization for Haskell OpenGL development.
   
In particular, note that the [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/GLUT/examples/ examples/] directory in the GLUT repo contains lots of examples, including translations of the red book examples.
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The [https://github.com/haskell-opengl/GLUT/tree/master/examples examples] directory in the GLUT package contains lots of examples, including translations of the [http://www.opengl.org/documentation/books/#the_opengl_programming_guide_the_official_guide_to_learning_opengl_version Red Book] examples. Both the API documentation and theses examples are best studied with the [http://www.opengl.org/documentation/specs/ original specs] and the original Red Book examples at hand. An index of examples can be found at the OpenGL wiki page [http://www.opengl.org/wiki/Code_Resources Code Resources].
   
Both the API documentation and the examples are best studied with the [http://www.opengl.org/documentation/specs/ original specs] and the original [http://www.opengl.org/documentation/red_book/ red book] examples at hand. An index of the examples from v1.1 of the red book, with screen shots, can be found [http://www.opengl.org/resources/code/samples/redbook/ here]
 
   
 
== Projects using the OpenGL bindings ==
 
== Projects using the OpenGL bindings ==
   
* [http://www.maths.tcd.ie/~icecube/2008/11/endless-cavern/ Endless Cavern], a 2D procedurally-generated exploration game.
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* [http://www.increpare.com/2008/11/endless-cavern/ Endless Cavern], a 2D procedurally-generated exploration game.
 
* [[Frag]], a 3D first-person shooter game.
 
* [[Frag]], a 3D first-person shooter game.
 
* [http://www.geocities.jp/takascience/haskell/monadius_en.html Monadius], a 2D scrolling arcade game.
 
* [http://www.geocities.jp/takascience/haskell/monadius_en.html Monadius], a 2D scrolling arcade game.
 
* [http://roguestar.downstairspeople.org/ Roguestar], a roguelike adventure game using 3D graphics.
 
* [http://roguestar.downstairspeople.org/ Roguestar], a roguelike adventure game using 3D graphics.
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/Shu-thing Shu-thing], a 2D scroling arcade game.
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* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/Shu-thing Shu-thing], a 2D scrolling arcade game.
 
* [http://home.arcor.de/chr_bauer/topkata.html Topkata], a jumping ball puzzle game.
 
* [http://home.arcor.de/chr_bauer/topkata.html Topkata], a jumping ball puzzle game.
 
* [http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/funvis/ PolyFunViz], a toolkit for scientific visualization (e.g. surfaces, flows, contours, volumes)
 
* [http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/funvis/ PolyFunViz], a toolkit for scientific visualization (e.g. surfaces, flows, contours, volumes)
  +
* [http://raincat.bysusanlin.com Raincat], a 2d puzzle game
  +
* [http://trac.haskell.org/gloss/ Gloss], hides the pain of drawing simple vector graphics behind a nice data type and a few display functions
  +
  +
See also the [http://packdeps.haskellers.com/reverse/OpenGL reverse dependencies list on haskellers.com]
  +
   
 
== HOpenGL Resources ==
 
== HOpenGL Resources ==
   
 
* [[OpenGLTutorial1]] and [[OpenGLTutorial2]]
 
* [[OpenGLTutorial1]] and [[OpenGLTutorial2]]
* [http://bluheron.europa.renci.org/docs/BeautifulCode.pdf Beautiful Code, Compelling Evidence: Functional Programming for Information Visualization and Visual Analytics] - Writing visualizations using OpenGL or Cairo (PDF)
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* [http://www.renci.org/publications/tutorials/BeautifulCode.pdf Beautiful Code, Compelling Evidence: Functional Programming for Information Visualization and Visual Analytics] - Writing visualizations using OpenGL or Cairo (PDF)
 
* [http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~haskell/hopengl/ Andre Furtado's nice tutorial] written in 2001 (bitrotted)
 
* [http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~haskell/hopengl/ Andre Furtado's nice tutorial] written in 2001 (bitrotted)
* [http://www.haskell.org/~pairwise/HOpenGL/HOpenGL.html#texLoad Spriting with HOpenGL], David Morra
+
   
 
== OpenGL Resources ==
 
== OpenGL Resources ==
   
* [http://www.opengl.org/resources/faq/technical/ OpenGL FAQ and Toubleshooting Guide] Assumes some knowledge of OpenGL. Good for those who have written something but want to avoid common pitfalls.
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* [http://www.opengl.org/archives/resources/faq/technical/ OpenGL FAQ and Troubleshooting Guide] Assumes some knowledge of OpenGL. Good for those who have written something but want to avoid common pitfalls.
** [http://www.opengl.org/resources/faq/technical/gettingstarted.htm#0050 2.100: What is the general form of an OpenGL program?]
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** [http://www.opengl.org/archives/resources/faq/technical/gettingstarted.htm#0050 2.100: What is the general form of an OpenGL program?]
  +
   
 
== Getting Started ==
 
== Getting Started ==
   
* Windows users can read how to install OpenGL in the blog article [http://netsuperbrain.com/blog/posts/freeglut-windows-hopengl-hglut/ freeglut + Windows + HOpenGL + HGLUT]
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* use the [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/nehe-tuts Haskell port] (Hackage package) of the [http://nehe.gamedev.net/tutorial/lessons_01__05/22004/ NeHe Tutorials]
  +
* use the (in progress) [https://github.com/bergey/haskell-OpenGL-examples Haskell port] of the [https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/OpenGL_Programming OpenGL WikiBook], using the modern programable pipeline
 
* assuming you know Haskell, any OpenGL tutorial of your choice should get you going (browsing the [http://www.opengl.org OpenGL] site is also a good idea)
 
* assuming you know Haskell, any OpenGL tutorial of your choice should get you going (browsing the [http://www.opengl.org OpenGL] site is also a good idea)
* use the [http://www.opengl.org/documentation/red_book/ Red Book], and its example code translations, to understand the small differences between OpenGL and HOpenGL
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* use the [http://www.opengl.org/documentation/books/#the_opengl_programming_guide_the_official_guide_to_learning_opengl_version Red Book], and its example code translations, to understand the small differences between OpenGL and HOpenGL
* use the [http://www.opengl.org/documentation/specs/ OpenGL and GLUT specs] to find your way around the [http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/OpenGL/latest/doc/html HOpenGL Haddock documentation]
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* use the [http://www.opengl.org/documentation/specs/ OpenGL and GLUT specs] to find your way around the [http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/OpenGL/latest/doc/html/ HOpenGL Haddock documentation]
 
* use the [http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/hopengl HopenGL list] for questions and success stories
 
* use the [http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/hopengl HopenGL list] for questions and success stories
   
 
== Additional software ==
 
== Additional software ==
  +
 
* [[FTGL]]: Portable TrueType font rendering for OpenGL using the Freetype2 library
 
* [[FTGL]]: Portable TrueType font rendering for OpenGL using the Freetype2 library
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/GLFW GLFW]: A binding for GLFW, An OpenGL Framework
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* [[GLFW]]: A binding for GLFW, An OpenGL Framework
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/GLUT GLUT]: A binding for the OpenGL Utility Toolkit
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* [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/GLUtil GLUtil]: Miscellaneous OpenGL utilities
  +
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/vinyl-gl vinyl-gl]: Utilities for working with OpenGL's GLSL shading language and vinyl records
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/graphics-drawingcombinators graphics-drawingcombinators]: A functional interface to 2D drawing in OpenGL
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/graphics-drawingcombinators graphics-drawingcombinators]: A functional interface to 2D drawing in OpenGL
  +
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/GPipe GPipe]: A functional graphics API for programmable GPUs
  +
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/freetype2 The freetype2 package]; bindings to [http://www.freetype.org/freetype2/index.html FreeType], a software font engine
   
Somewhat related is [http://libsdl.org/ SDL], which is also based on OpenGL:
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Somewhat related is [http://www.libsdl.org/ SDL], which is based on OpenGL:
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL SDL]: Binding to libSDL
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL SDL]: Binding to libSDL
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-gfx SDL-gfx]: Binding to libSDL_gfx
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-gfx SDL-gfx]: Binding to libSDL_gfx
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-image SDL-image]: Binding to libSDL_image
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-image SDL-image]: Binding to libSDL_image
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-mixer SDL-mixer]: Binding to libSDL_mixer
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-mixer SDL-mixer]: Binding to libSDL_mixer
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-mpeg SDL-mpeg]: Binding to the SMPEG library
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* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-mpeg SDL-mpeg]: Binding to the SMPEG library
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-ttf SDL-ttf]: Binding to libSDL_ttf
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/SDL-ttf SDL-ttf]: Binding to libSDL_ttf
   
Line 64: Line 68:
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/ALUT ALUT]: A binding for the OpenAL Utility Toolkit
 
* [http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/ALUT ALUT]: A binding for the OpenAL Utility Toolkit
   
  +
A fork of HOpenGL:
  +
* [[OGL]]
  +
  +
Experiments with raw bindings to GLFW/OpenGL produced with [[HSFFIG]]
  +
* [http://code.google.com/p/hs-ogl-misc/ hs-ogl-misc]
   
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
  +
 
=== I can't display text with renderString ===
 
=== I can't display text with renderString ===
  +
 
It's probably because the text is displayed too big. Setting a much smaller scale factor before calling renderString should solve the problem.
 
It's probably because the text is displayed too big. Setting a much smaller scale factor before calling renderString should solve the problem.
 
<haskell>
 
<haskell>
Line 72: Line 83:
 
renderString Roman "Test string"
 
renderString Roman "Test string"
 
</haskell>
 
</haskell>
  +
  +
 
=== Animations flicker ===
 
=== Animations flicker ===
  +
 
If you're not using DoubleBuffered display mode, turn that on. Also, you must set the display mode '''before''' creating the window you're going to be drawing in. To check if you've enabled double buffering use something like:
 
If you're not using DoubleBuffered display mode, turn that on. Also, you must set the display mode '''before''' creating the window you're going to be drawing in. To check if you've enabled double buffering use something like:
 
<haskell>
 
<haskell>
Line 82: Line 96:
 
createWindow "My Window"
 
createWindow "My Window"
 
</haskell>
 
</haskell>
You will also need to call [http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/GLUT/latest/doc/html/Graphics-UI-GLUT-Window.html#v%3AswapBuffers <haskell>swapBuffers</haskell>] at the end of your draw function.
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You will also need to call <haskell> swapBuffers </haskell> at the end of your draw function [http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/GLUT/latest/doc/html/Graphics-UI-GLUT-Window.html#v%3AswapBuffers (Read more about swapBuffers)].
  +
   
 
=== The depth buffer doesn't work (things that are closer to the camera are occluded by things that are farther from the camera) ===
 
=== The depth buffer doesn't work (things that are closer to the camera are occluded by things that are farther from the camera) ===
Line 92: Line 106:
 
<haskell>get (windowParam DepthBits)</haskell>
 
<haskell>get (windowParam DepthBits)</haskell>
   
  +
If DepthBits is 0, you probably forgot to initialize the window, like so:
  +
<haskell>openWindow size [DisplayDepthBits 16] Window</haskell>
  +
  +
Once you enable the depth buffer, you will need to clear it before each cycle of your drawing method:
  +
<haskell>clear [ColorBuffer, DepthBuffer]</haskell>
  +
  +
See also: [http://www.opengl.org/archives/resources/faq/technical/depthbuffer.htm#0010 The OpenGL FAQ: 12.010 How do I make depth buffering work?]
  +
  +
  +
== Blog articles ==
  +
  +
* [http://yannesposito.com/Scratch/en/blog/Haskell-OpenGL-Mandelbrot/ Haskell Progressive Example]
   
See also: [http://www.opengl.org/resources/faq/technical/depthbuffer.htm#0010 The OpenGL FAQ: 12.010 How do I make depth buffering work?]
 
   
   
 
[[Category:Packages]]
 
[[Category:Packages]]
 
[[Category:Libraries]]
 
[[Category:Libraries]]
  +
[[Category:Graphics]]
  +
[[Category:3D]]

Revision as of 14:32, 10 December 2013

This article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.

Contents

1 References

  • Starting with 2013.2.0.0, the OpenGL packages are part of the Haskell platform, so you can find the API documentation there.
  • Hackage hosts the individual OpenGL binding packages, including their latest API documentation:
    • OpenGLRaw contains a low-level wrapper around OpenGL, which is basically a 1:1 mapping of the C API.
    • GLURaw is similar to OpenGLRaw, just for the GLU part of OpenGL.
    • OpenGL is the high-level view on OpenGL, wrapping OpenGLRaw into something more Haskell-like.
    • GLUT is a binding for the OpenGL Utility Toolkit.
  • The HOpenGL mailing list can be used for all discussions regarding the use of OpenGL from Haskell.

The examples directory in the GLUT package contains lots of examples, including translations of the Red Book examples. Both the API documentation and theses examples are best studied with the original specs and the original Red Book examples at hand. An index of examples can be found at the OpenGL wiki page Code Resources.


2 Projects using the OpenGL bindings

  • Endless Cavern, a 2D procedurally-generated exploration game.
  • Frag, a 3D first-person shooter game.
  • Monadius, a 2D scrolling arcade game.
  • Roguestar, a roguelike adventure game using 3D graphics.
  • Shu-thing, a 2D scrolling arcade game.
  • Topkata, a jumping ball puzzle game.
  • PolyFunViz, a toolkit for scientific visualization (e.g. surfaces, flows, contours, volumes)
  • Raincat, a 2d puzzle game
  • Gloss, hides the pain of drawing simple vector graphics behind a nice data type and a few display functions

See also the reverse dependencies list on haskellers.com


3 HOpenGL Resources


4 OpenGL Resources


5 Getting Started

6 Additional software

  • FTGL: Portable TrueType font rendering for OpenGL using the Freetype2 library
  • GLFW: A binding for GLFW, An OpenGL Framework
  • GLUtil: Miscellaneous OpenGL utilities
  • vinyl-gl: Utilities for working with OpenGL's GLSL shading language and vinyl records
  • graphics-drawingcombinators: A functional interface to 2D drawing in OpenGL
  • GPipe: A functional graphics API for programmable GPUs
  • The freetype2 package; bindings to FreeType, a software font engine

Somewhat related is SDL, which is based on OpenGL:

To add sound to OpenGL applications:

  • OpenAL: A binding to the OpenAL cross-platform 3D audio API
  • ALUT: A binding for the OpenAL Utility Toolkit

A fork of HOpenGL:

Experiments with raw bindings to GLFW/OpenGL produced with HSFFIG

7 Troubleshooting

7.1 I can't display text with renderString

It's probably because the text is displayed too big. Setting a much smaller scale factor before calling renderString should solve the problem.

scale 0.001 0.001 (0.001∷GLfloat)
renderString Roman "Test string"


7.2 Animations flicker

If you're not using DoubleBuffered display mode, turn that on. Also, you must set the display mode before creating the window you're going to be drawing in. To check if you've enabled double buffering use something like:

db <- get doubleBuffered

and set DoubleBuffered mode (before creating your windows!) like this:

initialDisplayMode $= [DoubleBuffered]
createWindow "My Window"
You will also need to call
 swapBuffers
at the end of your draw function (Read more about swapBuffers).


7.3 The depth buffer doesn't work (things that are closer to the camera are occluded by things that are farther from the camera)

Make sure that depthFunc is set:

depthFunc $= Just Less

Furthermore, if you're using GLFW, the following var has to be greater than zero:

get (windowParam DepthBits)

If DepthBits is 0, you probably forgot to initialize the window, like so:

openWindow size [DisplayDepthBits 16] Window

Once you enable the depth buffer, you will need to clear it before each cycle of your drawing method:

clear [ColorBuffer, DepthBuffer]

See also: The OpenGL FAQ: 12.010 How do I make depth buffering work?


8 Blog articles