# Parameter order

### From HaskellWiki

('case' let you factor out code duplicates) |
(printMsg -> formatMsg) |
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Say, you want to know which of the signatures |
Say, you want to know which of the signatures |
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<haskell> |
<haskell> |
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− | printMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String |
+ | formatMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String |

− | printMsg :: Maybe Int -> String -> String |
+ | formatMsg :: Maybe Int -> String -> String |

</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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shall be used. |
shall be used. |
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The implementation might be |
The implementation might be |
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<haskell> |
<haskell> |
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− | printMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String |
+ | formatMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String |

− | printMsg msg Nothing = msg ++ "\n" |
+ | formatMsg msg Nothing = msg ++ "\n" |

− | printMsg msg (Just n) = msg ++ " " ++ show n ++ "\n" |
+ | formatMsg msg (Just n) = msg ++ " " ++ show n ++ "\n" |

</haskell> |
</haskell> |
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If you use <hask>case</hask> instead, you can factor out common parts of the implementation. |
If you use <hask>case</hask> instead, you can factor out common parts of the implementation. |
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<haskell> |
<haskell> |
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− | printMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String |
+ | formatMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String |

− | printMsg msg mn = |
+ | formatMsg msg mn = |

msg ++ |
msg ++ |
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(case mn of |
(case mn of |
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You can even omit the parameter you apply the case analysis to. |
You can even omit the parameter you apply the case analysis to. |
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<haskell> |
<haskell> |
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− | printMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String |
+ | formatMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String |

− | printMsg msg = |
+ | formatMsg msg = |

(msg ++) . (++ "\n") . maybe "" (\n -> " " ++ show n) |
(msg ++) . (++ "\n") . maybe "" (\n -> " " ++ show n) |
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</haskell> |
</haskell> |

## Revision as of 21:54, 4 August 2007

The **parameter order** of Haskell functions is an important design decision when programming libraries.
The parameter order shall

- allow piping,
- be consistent across similar functions.

Parameters in Haskell are rather reversed compared to imperative or object oriented languages.
In an object oriented language, the object to work on is the very first parameter.
In a function call it is often written even before the function name, say `file`

in `file.write("bla")`

.
Strictly spoken, in Haskell it is not possible to alter objects,
but there are many functions which return a somehow altered input object.
This object should be the last parameter because then you can compose a sequence of operations on this object

The code

sum . map f . filter p . scanl (*) 1

describes a function, which applies three transformations to a list. This can be written so easily because the list is always the last parameter.

The order of the parameters except the last one is not so critical. However you should keep in mind that also transformations on functions are perfectly ok in Haskell. That's why function operators like the differentiation and integration in functional analysis should have the parameter of the derived/integrated function at the last position and the transformed function should be the parameter before the last one.

integrate :: a -> (a -> a) -> (a -> a) integrate f0 f x = ... differentiate :: a -> (a -> a) -> (a -> a) differentiate h f x = ... -- continuous extension, aka function limit continuous :: (a -> a) -> (a -> a) continuous f x = ... exampleTransform = differentiate h . continuous

The third thing to consider is that it is easily possible to fix parameters, which are at the beginning.
E.g.

sum = foldl (+) 0 product = foldl (*) 1

We also see in this example that it is easily possible to generate a function with the first parameters fixed and that functions shall be prepared for this.

Also for the implementation of a function the order of parameters count. If you do a case analysis on a parameter, this one should be the last function parameter. Function parameters that are handled the same way for all cases should be first.

If you usea carefully chosen parameter order can simplify the implementation, and this order should also be prefered. Say, you want to know which of the signatures

formatMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String formatMsg :: Maybe Int -> String -> String

shall be used. The implementation might be

formatMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String formatMsg msg Nothing = msg ++ "\n" formatMsg msg (Just n) = msg ++ " " ++ show n ++ "\n"

formatMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String formatMsg msg mn = msg ++ (case mn of Nothing -> "" Just n -> " " ++ show n) ++ "\n"

You can even omit the parameter you apply the case analysis to.

formatMsg :: String -> Maybe Int -> String formatMsg msg = (msg ++) . (++ "\n") . maybe "" (\n -> " " ++ show n)

## 1 Bad examples

Sometimes library writers have infix usage of functions in mind.

See for instanceUnfortunately the order of arguments to infix operators, which seems to be natural for many programmers, is reversed with respect to the one we encourage above. Maybe this only indicates that parameter order should be reverse, at all, meaning that the name of the called function comes after the arguments (Reverse Polish Notation).

The operatorsHowever when using section, in most cases the first argument is omitted. This strongly indicates that their parameter order is unnatural in the Haskell sense.

However, for the subtraction there also existsThere are more cases where there is even no simple reason, why the parameter order was chosen in an unnatural way.

- Data.Map.lookup :: (Monad m, Ord k) => k -> Map k a -> m a
- Data.Map.findWithDefault :: Ord k => a -> k -> Map k a -> a
- Data.Map.lookupIndex :: (Monad m, Ord k) => k -> Map k a -> m Int
- Data.Map.findIndex :: Ord k => k -> Map k a -> Int

All of the functions above do this in some way,

whereflip (Data.Map.findWithDefault deflt) :: Ord k => Map k a -> (k -> a)

Unfortunately the parameters are ordered in a way that requires a flip for revealing this connection.

Maybe the library designer immitated the signature of

## 2 Context

Say a set of your functions works within a certain context. You have a function which run these functions within that context.

startSound :: (SoundServer -> IO a) -> IO a

Since a context is something that varies not very frequently it should be the first parameter.

play :: SoundServer -> Sound -> IO ()

This way it is easy to play a sequence of sounds, say

startSound (\server -> mapM_ (play server) [soundA, soundB, soundC]) .

On the other hand the parameter order

play' :: Sound -> SoundServer -> IO ()

simplifies the calls to single sound functions:

startSound (play' soundA) .

In this case we should actually make the context the last argument, but hide it in a Reader monad.

type SoundAction a = ReaderT SoundServer IO a playM :: Sound -> SoundAction () playM = ReaderT . play' startSoundM :: SoundAction a -> IO a startSoundM = startSound . runReaderT

This way, both of the above examples become equally simple.

startSoundM (mapM_ playM [soundA, soundB, soundC]) startSoundM (playM soundA)

## 3 The rule of thumb

What do we learn from all this considerations?

The more important the parameter, the more frequently it changes, the closer shall it be at the end of the parameter list. If there is some recursion involved, probably the parameter, on which you recurse, is the one which should be at the last position.