Phooey
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−  ''This page is in flux. I am preparing a new release (1.0) with some major changes.'' 

−  
== Abstract == 
== Abstract == 

−  '''Phooey''' is an [[arrow]]based functional UI library for [[Haskell]]. 
+  '''Phooey''' is a functional UI library for [[Haskell]]. Or it's two of them, as it provides a <hask>Monad</hask> interface ''and'' an <hask>Applicative</hask> interface. The simplicity of Phooey's implementation is due to its use of [[Reactive]] for applicative, datadriven computation. (Before version 2.0, Phooey used the [[DataDriven]] library.) 
−  * Read [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/doc/html the Haddock docs] (with source code, additional examples, and Comment/Talk links). 
+  Besides this wiki page, here are more ways to find out about Phooey: 
−  * Get the code repository: '''<tt>darcs get http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey</tt>''', or 
+  * Read [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/phooey2.0 the Haddock docs] (with source code, additional examples, and Comment/Talk links). 
−  * Grab a [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/dist distribution tarball]. 
+  * Get the code repository: '''<tt>darcs get http://conal.net/repos/phooey</tt>'''. 
−  * See the [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/CHANGES version changes]. 
+  
+  The package can be installed from [[Hackage]], using [[cabalinstall]]: 

+  cabal install phooey 

Phooey is also used in [[GuiTV]], a library for composable interfaces and "tangible values". 
Phooey is also used in [[GuiTV]], a library for composable interfaces and "tangible values". 

+  
+  Since Reactive is currently broken (as of February 2010), Phooey is also broken. 

== Introduction == 
== Introduction == 

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GUIs are usually programmed in an unnatural style, in that implementation dependencies are inverted, relative to logical dependencies. This reversal results directly from the ''push'' (datadriven) orientation of most GUI libraries. While outputs depend on inputs from a user and semantic point of view, the ''push'' style imposes an implementation dependence of inputs on outputs. 
GUIs are usually programmed in an unnatural style, in that implementation dependencies are inverted, relative to logical dependencies. This reversal results directly from the ''push'' (datadriven) orientation of most GUI libraries. While outputs depend on inputs from a user and semantic point of view, the ''push'' style imposes an implementation dependence of inputs on outputs. 

−  A second drawback of the push style is that it is ''imperative'' rather than declarative. A GUI program describes actions to update a model and and view in reaction to user input. In contrast to the ''howtoupdate'' style of an imperative program, a functional GUI program would express ''whatitis'' of a model in terms of the inputs and of the view in terms of the model. 
+  A second drawback of the push style is that it is ''imperative'' rather than declarative. A GUI program describes actions to update a model and view in reaction to user input. In contrast to the ''howtoupdate'' style of an imperative program, a functional GUI program would express ''whatitis'' of a model in terms of the inputs and of the view in terms of the model. 
The questions of pushvspull and imperativevsdeclarative are related. While an imperative GUI program could certainly be written to pull (poll) values from input to model and model to view, thus eliminating the dependency inversion, I don't know how a declarative program could be written in the inverteddependency style. ([[Talk:PhooeyDo you?]]). 
The questions of pushvspull and imperativevsdeclarative are related. While an imperative GUI program could certainly be written to pull (poll) values from input to model and model to view, thus eliminating the dependency inversion, I don't know how a declarative program could be written in the inverteddependency style. ([[Talk:PhooeyDo you?]]). 

−  A important reason for using push rather than pull in a GUI implementation is that push is typically much more efficient. A simple pull implementation would either waste time recomputing an unchanging model and view (pegging your CPU for no benefit), or deal with the complexity of avoiding that recomputation. The push style computes only when inputs change. (Animation negates this advantage of push.) 
+  A important reason for using push rather than pull in a GUI implementation is that push is typically much more efficient. A simple pull implementation would either waste time recomputing an unchanging model and view (pegging your CPU for no benefit), or deal with the complexity of avoiding that recomputation. The push style computes only when inputs change. (Continuous change, i.e. animation, negates this advantage of push.) 
−  Phooey ("'''Ph'''unctional '''oo'''s'''e'''r '''y'''nterfaces") adopts the declarative style, in which outputs are expressed in terms of inputs. Under the hood, however, the implementation is pushbased (datadriven). Phooey performs the dependency inversion invisibly, so that programmers may express GUIs simply and declaratively while still getting an efficient implementation. I have taken care to structure Phooey's implementation as simply as possible to make clear how this dependency inversion works (subject of paper in progress). In addition, Phooey supports dynamic input bounds, flexible layout, and mutuallyreferential widgets. (The last feature is currently broken.) 
+  Phooey ("'''Ph'''unctional '''oo'''s'''e'''r '''y'''nterfaces") adopts the declarative style, in which outputs are expressed in terms of inputs. Under the hood, however, the implementation is pushbased (datadriven). Phooey uses the [[Reactive]] library to perform the dependency inversion invisibly, so that programmers may express GUIs simply and declaratively while still getting an efficient implementation. 
−  Phooey came out of [http://conal.net/Pajama Pajama] and [http://conal.net/papers/Eros]. Pan is a 
+  Phooey came out of [http://conal.net/Pajama Pajama] and [http://conal.net/papers/Eros Eros]. Pajama is a reimplementation of the [http://conal.net/Pan Pan] language and compiler for function synthesis of interactive, continuous, infinite images. Pan and Pajama use a monadic style for specifying GUIs and are able to do so because they use the implementation trick of [http://conal.net/papers/jfpsaig Compiling Embedded Languages], in which one manipulates expressions rather than values. (This trick is mostly transparent, but the illusion shows through in places.) 
−  reimplementation of the [http://conal.net/Pan Pan] language and compiler for function synthesis of 

−  interactive, continuous, infinite images. Pan and Pajama use a monadic style for specifying GUIs and 

−  are able to do so because they use the implementation trick of [http://conal.net/papers/jfpsaig 

−  Compiling Embedded Languages], in which one manipulates expressions rather than values. (This trick 

−  is mostly transparent, but the illusion shows through in places.) 

−  == One example, three interfaces == 
+  == One example, two interfaces == 
As an example, below is a simple shopping list GUI. The <hask>total</hask> displayed at the bottom of the window always shows the sum of the values of the <hask>apples</hask> and <hask>bananas</hask> input sliders. When a user changes the inputs, the output updates accordingly. 
As an example, below is a simple shopping list GUI. The <hask>total</hask> displayed at the bottom of the window always shows the sum of the values of the <hask>apples</hask> and <hask>bananas</hask> input sliders. When a user changes the inputs, the output updates accordingly. 

: [[Image:ui1.png]] 
: [[Image:ui1.png]] 

−  Phooey presents three styles of functional GUI interfaces, structured as a [[monad]], an [[arrow]], and an [[applicative functor]]. Below we present code for the shopping list example in each of the three functional styles. 
+  Phooey presents two styles of functional GUI interfaces, structured as a [[monad]] and as an [[applicative functor]]. (I have removed the original [[arrow]] interface.) Below you can see the code for the shopping list example in each of these styles. 
−  The examples below are all found under <code>src/Examples/</code> in the phooey distribution, in the modules <code>Monad.hs</code>, <code>Arrow.hs</code>, and <code>Monad.hs</code>. In each case, the example is run by loading the corresponding example module into ghci and typing "<hask>runUI ui1</hask>". 
+  The examples below are all found under [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/src/Examples <code>src/Examples/</code>] in the phooey distribution, in the modules [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/src/Examples/Monad.hs <code>Monad.hs</code>], and [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/src/Examples/Applicative.hs <code>Applicative.hs</code>]. In each case, the example is run by loading the corresponding example module into ghci and typing <hask>runUI ui1</hask>. 
=== Monad === 
=== Monad === 

−  Here is a definition for the GUI shown above, formulated in terms of [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/doc/html/GraphicsUIPhooeyMonad.html Phooey's [[monad]]ic interface]. 
+  Here is a definition for the GUI shown above, formulated in terms of Phooey's monadic interface. See the [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/doc/html/GraphicsUIPhooeyMonad.html monad interface] and its [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/doc/html/src.Graphics.UI.Phooey.Monad.hs.html source code]. 
<haskell> 
<haskell> 

−  ui1 :: UI (Source ()) 
+  ui1 :: UI () 
ui1 = title "Shopping List" $ 
ui1 = title "Shopping List" $ 

do a < title "apples" $ islider (0,10) 3 
do a < title "apples" $ islider (0,10) 3 

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type IWidget a = a > UI (Source a) 
type IWidget a = a > UI (Source a) 

 Output widget type 
 Output widget type 

−  type OWidget a = Source a > UI (Source ()) 
+  type OWidget a = Source a > UI () 
islider :: (Int,Int) > IWidget Int 
islider :: (Int,Int) > IWidget Int 

Line 59:  Line 59:  
</haskell> 
</haskell> 

−  The <hask>Source</hask> type is a [[TypeCompose#Data_driven_computationsdatadriven computation]]. By using <hask>Source Int</hask> instead of <hask>Int</hask> for the type of <hask>a</hask> and <hask>b</hask> above, we do not have to rebuild the GUI every time an input value changes. 
+  The <hask>Source</hask> type is a (datadriven) source of [[Reactivetimevarying values]]. (<hask>Source</hask> is a synonym for <hask>Reactive</hask>.) By using <hask>Source Int</hask> instead of <hask>Int</hask> for the type of <hask>a</hask> and <hask>b</hask> above, we do not have to rebuild the GUI every time an input value changes. 
The down side of using source types is seen in the <hask>showDisplay</hask> line above, which requires lifting. We could partially hide the lifting behind overloadings of <hask>Num</hask> and other classes (as in [http://conal.net/Fran Fran], [http://conal.net/Pan Pan], and other systems). Some methods, however, do not not have sufficiently flexible types (e.g., <hask>(==)</hask>), and the illusion becomes awkward. The <hask>Arrow</hask> and <hask>Applicative</hask> interfaces hide the source types. 
The down side of using source types is seen in the <hask>showDisplay</hask> line above, which requires lifting. We could partially hide the lifting behind overloadings of <hask>Num</hask> and other classes (as in [http://conal.net/Fran Fran], [http://conal.net/Pan Pan], and other systems). Some methods, however, do not not have sufficiently flexible types (e.g., <hask>(==)</hask>), and the illusion becomes awkward. The <hask>Arrow</hask> and <hask>Applicative</hask> interfaces hide the source types. 

Line 81:  Line 81:  
And use them: 
And use them: 

<haskell> 
<haskell> 

−  ui1x :: UI (Source ()) 
+  ui1x :: UI () 
ui1x = title "Shopping List" $ 
ui1x = title "Shopping List" $ 

do a < apples 
do a < apples 

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We can go pointfree by using <hask>liftM2</hask> and <hask>(>>=)</hask>: 
We can go pointfree by using <hask>liftM2</hask> and <hask>(>>=)</hask>: 

<haskell> 
<haskell> 

+   Sum UIs 

+  infixl 6 .+. 

+  
+  (.+.) :: Num a => UIS a > UIS a > UIS a 

+  (.+.) = liftA2 (liftA2 (+)) 

+  
fruit :: UI (Source Int) 
fruit :: UI (Source Int) 

−  fruit = liftM2 (liftA2 (+)) apples bananas 
+  fruit = apples .+. bananas 
−  ui1y :: UI (Source ()) 
+  ui1y :: UI () 
ui1y = title "Shopping List" $ fruit >>= total 
ui1y = title "Shopping List" $ fruit >>= total 

−  </haskell> 

−  
−  
−  === Arrow === 

−  
−  Using source types allows the monadic style to capture the static nature of the input GUI while giving access to a ''source'' of dynamic values. Alternatively, we can solve the problem by replacing the [[Monad]] abstraction with one that separates static and dynamic aspects. Getting that separation is the point of the [[Arrow]] abstraction, and thus Phooey provides an arrow interface as well. Moreover, the UI arrow is implemented on top of its UI monad using a simple, reusable pattern. See the 

−  [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/doc/html/GraphicsUIPhooeyArrow.html Arrow module doc] 

−  and its [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/doc/html/src/Graphics/UI/Phooey/Arrow.hs.html source code]. 

−  
−  The example: 

−  <haskell> 

−  ui1 :: UI () () 

−  ui1 = title "Shopping List" $ 

−  proc () > do 

−  a < title "apples" $ islider (0,10) 3 < () 

−  b < title "bananas" $ islider (0,10) 7 < () 

−  title "total" showDisplay < a+b 

−  </haskell> 

−  Note the simplicity of <hask>a+b</hask>. Also, the slider bounds have been moved to a ''dynamic'' position, which will be discussed below. 

−  
−  The types of <hask>islider</hask>, <hask>showDisplay</hask>, and <hask>title</hask> as as in the monadic version, with these new definitions of input and output widget types: 

−  <haskell> 

−  type IWidget a = a > UI () a 

−  type OWidget a = UI a () 

</haskell> 
</haskell> 

=== Applicative Functor === 
=== Applicative Functor === 

−  [[Applicative functor]]s provide still another approach to separating static and dynamic information. Our example: 
+  [[Applicative functor]]s (AFs) provide still another approach to separating static and dynamic information. Here is our example, showing just the changes relative to the [[#Monadmonadic]] version. (See the 
+  [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/doc/html/GraphicsUIPhooeyApplicative.html Applicative interface doc] and its [http://darcs.haskell.org/packages/phooey/doc/html/src.Graphics.UI.Phooey.Applicative.hs.html source code].) 

<haskell> 
<haskell> 

ui1 :: UI (IO ()) 
ui1 :: UI (IO ()) 

ui1 = title "Shopping List" $ fruit <**> total 
ui1 = title "Shopping List" $ fruit <**> total 

−  apples, bananas, fruit :: UI Int 
+  fruit :: UI Int 
−  apples = title "apples" (sl0 3) 
+  fruit = liftA2 (+) apples bananas 
−  bananas = title "bananas" (sl0 7) 

−  fruit = liftA2 (+) apples bananas 

total :: Num a => OWidget a 
total :: Num a => OWidget a 

total = title "total" showDisplay 
total = title "total" showDisplay 

</haskell> 
</haskell> 

+  I chose reversed AF application <hask>(<**>)</hask> rather than <hask>(<*>)</hask> so the fruit (argument) would be displayed above the total (function). 

The UIbuilding functions again have the same types as before, relative to these new definitions: 
The UIbuilding functions again have the same types as before, relative to these new definitions: 

Line 143:  Line 125:  
Notes: 
Notes: 

−  * <hask>ui1</hask> is an <hask>IO</hask>valued UI. 

* Output widgets are functionvalued UI. 
* Output widgets are functionvalued UI. 

−  * While <hask>apples</hask> and <hask>bananas</hask> are exactly as before, <hask>total</hask> is different, because output widgets are now ''functionvalued''. 
+  * <hask>fruit</hask> has a simpler definition, requiring only one lifting instead of two. 
−  * Compared with the [[#Monadmonadic]] version, <hask>fruit</hask> has a simpler definition, requiring only one lifting instead of two. 
+  * <hask>total</hask> is subtly different, because output widgets are now ''functionvalued''. 
* <hask>ui1</hask> uses the [http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/ControlApplicative.html#v%3A%3C%2A%2A%3E reverse application operator] <hask>(<**>)</hask>. This reversal causes the function to appear after (below) the argument. 
* <hask>ui1</hask> uses the [http://www.haskell.org/ghc/docs/latest/html/libraries/base/ControlApplicative.html#v%3A%3C%2A%2A%3E reverse application operator] <hask>(<**>)</hask>. This reversal causes the function to appear after (below) the argument. 

+  * <hask>ui1</hask> is an IOvalued UI. 

−  == Dynamic Bounds == 
+  The applicative UI interface (<hask>Graphics.UI.Phooey.Applicative</hask>) is implemented as a very simple layer on top of the monadic interface, using type composition (from [[TypeCompose]]): 
−  +  <haskell> 

−  ''[Example ui2]'' 
+  type UI = M.UI :. Source 
+  </haskell> 

+  Thanks to properties of <hask>O</hask>, this definition suffices to make <hask>UI</hask> an AF. 

== Layout == 
== Layout == 

−  
By default, UI layout follows the order of the specification, with earlierspecified components above laterspecified ones. This layout may be overridden by explicit layout functions. For instance, the following definitions form variations of <hask>ui1</hask> laid out from bottom to top and from left to right. 
By default, UI layout follows the order of the specification, with earlierspecified components above laterspecified ones. This layout may be overridden by explicit layout functions. For instance, the following definitions form variations of <hask>ui1</hask> laid out from bottom to top and from left to right. 

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</haskell> 
</haskell> 

−  == Recursive GUIs == 
+  == Event Examples == 
+  
+  The shopping examples above demonstrate the simple case of outputs (<hask>total</hask>) as functions of varying inputs (<hask>apples</hask> and <hask>bananas</hask>). Events were hidden inside the implementation of [[Reactive#Data.Reactivereactive values]]. 

+  
+  This section shows two classic functional GUI examples involving a visible notion of [[Reactive#Data.Reactiveevents]]. 

+  
+  === Counter === 

+  
+  Here is simple counter, which increments or decrements when the "up" or "down" button is pressed. The example is from "[http://www.citeulike.org/user/conal/article/1617415 Structuring Graphical Paradigms in TkGofer]" 

+  
+  : [[Image:PhooeyUpDown.png]] 

+  
+  The first piece in making this counter is a button, having a specified value and a label. The button GUI's value is an ''event'' rather than a source: 

+  <haskell> 

+  smallButton :: a > String > UI (Event a) 

+  </haskell> 

+  To make the up/down counter, we'll want two such buttons, labeled "up" and "down". But with what values? The buttons won't know what the counter value is, but they will know how to change the value, so the events will be functionvalued. The two events resulting from the two buttons are then merged into a single functionvalued event via <hask>mappend</hask>. (If you're curious about events at this point, take a detour and [[Reactive#Data.Reactiveread about them]].) 

+  
+  The pair of buttons and combined event could be written as follows: 

+  <haskell> 

+  upDown :: Num a => UIE (a > a) 

+  upDown = do up < smallButton (+ 1) "up" 

+  down < smallButton (subtract 1) "down" 

+  return (up `mappend` down) 

+  </haskell> 

+  If you've been hanging around with monad hipsters, you'll know that we can write this definition more simply: 

+  <haskell> 

+  upDown = liftM2 mappend (smallButton (+ 1) "up") 

+  (smallButton (subtract 1) "down") 

+  </haskell> 

+  Personally, I'm on an <hask>Applicative</hask> kick lately, so I prefer <hask>liftA2</hask> in place of <hask>liftM2</hask>. 

+  
+  Still more sleekly, let's hide the <hask>liftM2</hask> (or <hask>liftA2</hask>) by using the <hask>Monoid (UI o) </hask> instance, which holds whenever <hask>Monoid o</hask>. 

+  <haskell> 

+  upDown = smallButton (+ 1) "up" `mappend` 

+  smallButton (subtract 1) "down" 

+  </haskell> 

+  
+  To finish the counter, use the <hask>accumR</hask> function, which makes a source from an initial value and an functionvalued event. The source begins as the initial value and grows by applying the functions generated by the event. 

+  <haskell> 

+  accumR :: a > UI (Event (a > a)) > UI (Source a) 

+  
+  counter :: UI () 

+  counter = title "Counter" $ fromLeft $ 

+  do e < upDown 

+  showDisplay (0 `accumR` e) 

+  </haskell> 

+  
+  === Calculator === 

+  
+  The second event example is a calculator, as taken from "[http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/vullinghs95lightweight.html Lightweight GUIs for Functional Programming]". 

+  
+  : [[Image:Calc.png]] 

+  
+  The basic structure of this example is just like the previous one. Each key has a functionvalued event, and the keys are combined (visually and semantically) using <hask>mappend</hask>. 

+  
+  First a single key. For variety, we'll postpone interpreting the key's event as a function. 

+  <haskell> 

+  key :: Char > UIE Char 

+  key c = button' c [c] 

+  </haskell> 

+  
+  We'll combine keys with the help of a friend of <hask>concatMap</hask>: 

+  <haskell> 

+  mconcatMap :: Monoid b => (a > b) > [a] > b 

+  mconcatMap f = mconcat . map f 

+  </haskell> 

+  
+  With this helper, it's especially easy to turn several keys into a row and several rows into a keyboard. 

+  <haskell> 

+  row :: [Char] > UIE Char 

+  row = fromLeft . mconcatMap key 

+  
+  rows :: [[Char]] > UIE Char 

+  rows = fromTop . mconcatMap row 

+  
+  calcKeys :: UIE Char 

+  calcKeys = rows [ "123+" 

+  , "456" 

+  , "789*" 

+  , "C0=/" ] 

+  </haskell> 

+  
+  Next, let's turn <hask>calcKeys</hask>'s charactervalued event into a functionvalued event. While the state of the [[Phooey#Countercounter]] was a single number, the calculator state is a little more complicated. It consists of a number being formed and a continuation. 

+  <haskell> 

+  type CState = (Int, Int > Int) 

+  
+  startCS :: CState 

+  startCS = (0, id) 

+  </haskell> 

+  
+  Keyboard characters have interpretations as state transitions. 

+  <haskell> 

+  cmd :: Char > CState > CState 

+  cmd 'C' _ = startCS 

+  cmd '=' (d,k) = (k d, const (k d)) 

+  cmd c (d,k)  isDigit c = (10*d + ord c  ord '0', k) 

+   otherwise = (0, op c (k d)) 

+  
+  op :: Char > Int > Int > Int 

+  op c = fromJust (lookup c ops) 

+  where 

+  ops :: [(Char, Binop Int)] 

+  ops = [('+',(+)), ('',()), ('*',(*)), ('/',div)] 

+  </haskell> 

+  
+  To compute the (reactive) value, from a keygenerating event, accumulate transitions, starting with the initial state, and extract the value. 

+  <haskell> 

+  compCalc :: Event Char > Source Int 

+  compCalc key = fmap fst (startCS `accumR` fmap cmd key) 

+  </haskell> 

+  Show the result: 

+  <haskell> 

+  showCalc :: Event Char > UI () 

+  showCalc = title "result" . showDisplay . compCalc 

+  </haskell> 

+  
+  The whole calculator then snaps together: 

+  <haskell> 

+  calc :: UI () 

+  calc = title "Calculator" $ calcKeys >>= showCalc 

+  </haskell> 

== Portability == 
== Portability == 

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wxHaskell is therefore built on top of [http://www.wxwidgets.org wxWidgets]  a comprehensive C++ library that is portable across all major GUI platforms; including GTK, Windows, X11, and MacOS X. 
wxHaskell is therefore built on top of [http://www.wxwidgets.org wxWidgets]  a comprehensive C++ library that is portable across all major GUI platforms; including GTK, Windows, X11, and MacOS X. 

</blockquote> 
</blockquote> 

−  So I expect that Phooey runs on all of these platforms. That said, I have only tried Phooey on Windows. Please give it a try and leave a message on the Talk page ("Discuss this page"). 
+  So I expect that Phooey runs on all of these platforms. That said, I have only tried Phooey on Windows. Please give it a try and leave a message on the [[Talk:Phooeytalk page]]. 
== Known problems == 
== Known problems == 

Line 195:  Line 176:  
* Use Javascript and HTML in place wxHaskell, and hook it up with [[Yhc/Javascript]]. 
* Use Javascript and HTML in place wxHaskell, and hook it up with [[Yhc/Javascript]]. 

−  [[Category:User Interfaces]] 
+  [[Category:User interfaces]] 
[[Category:Arrow]] 
[[Category:Arrow]] 

[[Category:Monad]] 
[[Category:Monad]] 

[[Category:Libraries]] 
[[Category:Libraries]] 

[[Category:Packages]] 
[[Category:Packages]] 

+  [[Category:wxHaskell]] 
Latest revision as of 14:34, 3 April 2012
Contents 
[edit] 1 Abstract
Phooey is a functional UI library for Haskell. Or it's two of them, as it provides aBesides this wiki page, here are more ways to find out about Phooey:
 Read the Haddock docs (with source code, additional examples, and Comment/Talk links).
 Get the code repository: darcs get http://conal.net/repos/phooey.
The package can be installed from Hackage, using cabalinstall:
cabal install phooey
Phooey is also used in GuiTV, a library for composable interfaces and "tangible values".
Since Reactive is currently broken (as of February 2010), Phooey is also broken.
[edit] 2 Introduction
GUIs are usually programmed in an unnatural style, in that implementation dependencies are inverted, relative to logical dependencies. This reversal results directly from the push (datadriven) orientation of most GUI libraries. While outputs depend on inputs from a user and semantic point of view, the push style imposes an implementation dependence of inputs on outputs.
A second drawback of the push style is that it is imperative rather than declarative. A GUI program describes actions to update a model and view in reaction to user input. In contrast to the howtoupdate style of an imperative program, a functional GUI program would express whatitis of a model in terms of the inputs and of the view in terms of the model.
The questions of pushvspull and imperativevsdeclarative are related. While an imperative GUI program could certainly be written to pull (poll) values from input to model and model to view, thus eliminating the dependency inversion, I don't know how a declarative program could be written in the inverteddependency style. (Do you?).
A important reason for using push rather than pull in a GUI implementation is that push is typically much more efficient. A simple pull implementation would either waste time recomputing an unchanging model and view (pegging your CPU for no benefit), or deal with the complexity of avoiding that recomputation. The push style computes only when inputs change. (Continuous change, i.e. animation, negates this advantage of push.)
Phooey ("Phunctional ooser ynterfaces") adopts the declarative style, in which outputs are expressed in terms of inputs. Under the hood, however, the implementation is pushbased (datadriven). Phooey uses the Reactive library to perform the dependency inversion invisibly, so that programmers may express GUIs simply and declaratively while still getting an efficient implementation.
Phooey came out of Pajama and Eros. Pajama is a reimplementation of the Pan language and compiler for function synthesis of interactive, continuous, infinite images. Pan and Pajama use a monadic style for specifying GUIs and are able to do so because they use the implementation trick of Compiling Embedded Languages, in which one manipulates expressions rather than values. (This trick is mostly transparent, but the illusion shows through in places.)
[edit] 3 One example, two interfaces
As an example, below is a simple shopping list GUI. ThePhooey presents two styles of functional GUI interfaces, structured as a monad and as an applicative functor. (I have removed the original arrow interface.) Below you can see the code for the shopping list example in each of these styles.
The examples below are all found undersrc/Examples/
in the phooey distribution, in the modules Monad.hs
, and Applicative.hs
. In each case, the example is run by loading the corresponding example module into ghci and typing [edit] 3.1 Monad
Here is a definition for the GUI shown above, formulated in terms of Phooey's monadic interface. See the monad interface and its source code.
ui1 :: UI () ui1 = title "Shopping List" $ do a < title "apples" $ islider (0,10) 3 b < title "bananas" $ islider (0,10) 7 title "total" $ showDisplay (liftA2 (+) a b)
The relevant library declarations:
 Input widget type (with initial value) type IWidget a = a > UI (Source a)  Output widget type type OWidget a = Source a > UI () islider :: (Int,Int) > IWidget Int showDisplay :: Show a => OWidget a title :: String > UI a > UI a
Before we move on to other interface styles, let's look at some refactorings. First pull out the slider minus initial value:
sl0 :: IWidget Int sl0 = islider (0,10)
Then the titled widgets:
apples, bananas :: UI (Source Int) apples = title "apples" $ sl0 3 bananas = title "bananas" $ sl0 7 total :: Num a => OWidget a total = title "total" . showDisplay
And use them:
ui1x :: UI () ui1x = title "Shopping List" $ do a < apples b < bananas total (liftA2 (+) a b)
 Sum UIs infixl 6 .+. (.+.) :: Num a => UIS a > UIS a > UIS a (.+.) = liftA2 (liftA2 (+)) fruit :: UI (Source Int) fruit = apples .+. bananas ui1y :: UI () ui1y = title "Shopping List" $ fruit >>= total
[edit] 3.2 Applicative Functor
Applicative functors (AFs) provide still another approach to separating static and dynamic information. Here is our example, showing just the changes relative to the monadic version. (See the Applicative interface doc and its source code.)
ui1 :: UI (IO ()) ui1 = title "Shopping List" $ fruit <**> total fruit :: UI Int fruit = liftA2 (+) apples bananas total :: Num a => OWidget a total = title "total" showDisplay
The UIbuilding functions again have the same types as before, relative to these new definitions:
type IWidget a = a > UI a type OWidget a = UI (a > IO ())
Notes:
 Output widgets are functionvalued UI.
 has a simpler definition, requiring only one lifting instead of two.fruit
 is subtly different, because output widgets are now functionvalued.total
 uses the reverse application operatorui1. This reversal causes the function to appear after (below) the argument.(<**>)
 is an IOvalued UI.ui1
type UI = M.UI :. Source
[edit] 4 Layout
By default, UI layout follows the order of the specification, with earlierspecified components above laterspecified ones. This layout may be overridden by explicit layout functions. For instance, the following definitions form variations ofGUIs & code:
uiB1 = fromBottom ui1 uiL1 = fromLeft ui1
ui3 = fromBottom $ title "Shopping List" $ fromRight fruit >>= total
[edit] 5 Event Examples
The shopping examples above demonstrate the simple case of outputs (This section shows two classic functional GUI examples involving a visible notion of events.
[edit] 5.1 Counter
Here is simple counter, which increments or decrements when the "up" or "down" button is pressed. The example is from "Structuring Graphical Paradigms in TkGofer"
The first piece in making this counter is a button, having a specified value and a label. The button GUI's value is an event rather than a source:
smallButton :: a > String > UI (Event a)
The pair of buttons and combined event could be written as follows:
upDown :: Num a => UIE (a > a) upDown = do up < smallButton (+ 1) "up" down < smallButton (subtract 1) "down" return (up `mappend` down)
If you've been hanging around with monad hipsters, you'll know that we can write this definition more simply:
upDown = liftM2 mappend (smallButton (+ 1) "up") (smallButton (subtract 1) "down")
upDown = smallButton (+ 1) "up" `mappend` smallButton (subtract 1) "down"
accumR :: a > UI (Event (a > a)) > UI (Source a) counter :: UI () counter = title "Counter" $ fromLeft $ do e < upDown showDisplay (0 `accumR` e)
[edit] 5.2 Calculator
The second event example is a calculator, as taken from "Lightweight GUIs for Functional Programming".
The basic structure of this example is just like the previous one. Each key has a functionvalued event, and the keys are combined (visually and semantically) usingFirst a single key. For variety, we'll postpone interpreting the key's event as a function.
key :: Char > UIE Char key c = button' c [c]
mconcatMap :: Monoid b => (a > b) > [a] > b mconcatMap f = mconcat . map f
With this helper, it's especially easy to turn several keys into a row and several rows into a keyboard.
row :: [Char] > UIE Char row = fromLeft . mconcatMap key rows :: [[Char]] > UIE Char rows = fromTop . mconcatMap row calcKeys :: UIE Char calcKeys = rows [ "123+" , "456" , "789*" , "C0=/" ]
type CState = (Int, Int > Int) startCS :: CState startCS = (0, id)
Keyboard characters have interpretations as state transitions.
cmd :: Char > CState > CState cmd 'C' _ = startCS cmd '=' (d,k) = (k d, const (k d)) cmd c (d,k)  isDigit c = (10*d + ord c  ord '0', k)  otherwise = (0, op c (k d)) op :: Char > Int > Int > Int op c = fromJust (lookup c ops) where ops :: [(Char, Binop Int)] ops = [('+',(+)), ('',()), ('*',(*)), ('/',div)]
To compute the (reactive) value, from a keygenerating event, accumulate transitions, starting with the initial state, and extract the value.
compCalc :: Event Char > Source Int compCalc key = fmap fst (startCS `accumR` fmap cmd key)
Show the result:
showCalc :: Event Char > UI () showCalc = title "result" . showDisplay . compCalc
The whole calculator then snaps together:
calc :: UI () calc = title "Calculator" $ calcKeys >>= showCalc
[edit] 6 Portability
Phooey is built on wxHaskell. Quoting from the wxHaskell home page,
wxHaskell is therefore built on top of wxWidgets  a comprehensive C++ library that is portable across all major GUI platforms; including GTK, Windows, X11, and MacOS X.
So I expect that Phooey runs on all of these platforms. That said, I have only tried Phooey on Windows. Please give it a try and leave a message on the talk page.
[edit] 7 Known problems
 Recursive examples don't work (consumes memory) in the Arrow or Applicative interface.
[edit] 8 Plans
 Use Javascript and HTML in place wxHaskell, and hook it up with Yhc/Javascript.