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Polymorphism

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== Examples ==
 
== Examples ==
 
<haskell>
 
<haskell>
foldr :: forall a b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b
+
foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b
 
</haskell>
 
</haskell>
<hask>foldr</hask> is a parametric polymorphic [[function]]. When actually used, it may take on any of a variety of types, for example:
+
<hask>foldr</hask> is a parametrically polymorphic [[function]]. When actually used, it may take on any of a variety of types, for example:
 
<haskell>
 
<haskell>
::(Char ->Int->Int)->Int->String->Int
+
:: (Char -> Int -> Int) -> Int -> String -> Int -- a = Char, b = Int
::(String->String->String)->String->[String]->String
+
:: (String -> String -> String) -> String -> [String] -> String -- a = b = String
 
</haskell>
 
</haskell>
An "integer literal" is a parametric polymorphic data type:
+
Numeric literals are overloaded (i.e. subject to ad-hoc polymorphism):
 
<haskell>
 
<haskell>
1 :: forall t. (Num t) => t
+
1 :: (Num t) => t
 
</haskell>
 
</haskell>
   

Revision as of 18:00, 30 April 2012

A value is polymorphic if, depending on the context where it's used, it can take on more than one type.

There are different kinds of polymorphism.

  1. Parametric polymorphism; mostly found in functional languages
  2. Ad-hoc polymorphism or overloading
  3. Inclusion polymorphism; mostly found in object oriented languages

1 Examples

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b
foldr
is a parametrically polymorphic function. When actually used, it may take on any of a variety of types, for example:
:: (Char -> Int -> Int) -> Int -> String -> Int -- a = Char, b = Int
:: (String -> String -> String) -> String -> [String] -> String -- a = b = String

Numeric literals are overloaded (i.e. subject to ad-hoc polymorphism):

1 :: (Num t) => t

2 References