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Prime numbers miscellaneous

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For a context to this, please see Implicit Heap.

1 Implicit Heap

The following is an original implicit heap implementation for the sieve of Eratosthenes, kept here for historical record. The Prime_numbers#Tree Merging with Wheel section simplifies it, removing the People a structure altogether, and improves upon it by using a folding tree structure better adjusted for primes processing, and a wheel optimization.

See also the message threads Re: "no-coding" functional data structures via lazyness for more about how merging ordered lists amounts to creating an implicit heap and Re: Code and Perf. Data for Prime Finders for an explanation of the People a structure that makes it work.

data People a = VIP a (People a) | Crowd [a]
mergeP :: Ord a => People a -> People a -> People a
mergeP (VIP x xt) ys                    = VIP x $ mergeP xt ys
mergeP (Crowd xs) (Crowd ys)            = Crowd $ merge  xs ys
mergeP xs@(Crowd (x:xt)) ys@(VIP y yt)  = case compare x y of
    LT -> VIP x $ mergeP (Crowd xt) ys
    EQ -> VIP x $ mergeP (Crowd xt) yt
    GT -> VIP y $ mergeP xs yt
merge :: Ord a => [a] -> [a] -> [a]
merge xs@(x:xt) ys@(y:yt) = case compare x y of
    LT -> x : merge xt ys
    EQ -> x : merge xt yt
    GT -> y : merge xs yt
diff xs@(x:xt) ys@(y:yt) = case compare x y of
    LT -> x : diff xt ys
    EQ ->     diff xt yt
    GT ->     diff xs yt
foldTree :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a
foldTree f ~(x:xs) = x `f` foldTree f (pairs xs)
    where pairs ~(x: ~(y:ys)) = f x y : pairs ys
primes, nonprimes :: [Integer]
primes    = 2:3:diff [5,7..] nonprimes
nonprimes = serve . foldTree mergeP . map multiples $ tail primes
    multiples p = vip [p*p,p*p+2*p..]
    vip (x:xs)       = VIP x $ Crowd xs
    serve (VIP x xs) = x:serve xs
    serve (Crowd xs) = xs

nonprimes effectively implements a heap, exploiting lazy evaluation.

2 Prime Wheels

The idea of only testing odd numbers can be extended further. For instance, it is a useful fact that every prime number other than 2 and 3 must be of the form 6k + 1 or 6k + 5. Thus, we only need to test these numbers:

primes :: [Integer]
primes = 2:3:primes'
    1:p:candidates = [6*k+r | k <- [0..], r <- [1,5]]
    primes'        = p : filter isPrime candidates
    isPrime n      = all (not . divides n)
                       $ takeWhile (\p -> p*p <= n) primes'
    divides n p    = n `mod` p == 0
is the list of primes greater than 3 and
does not test for divisibility by 2 or 3 because the
by construction don't have these numbers as factors. We also need to exclude 1 from the candidates and mark the next one as prime to start the recursion.

Such a scheme to generate candidate numbers first that avoid a given set of primes as divisors is called a prime wheel. Imagine that you had a wheel of circumference 6 to be rolled along the number line. With spikes positioned 1 and 5 units around the circumference, rolling the wheel will prick holes exactly in those positions on the line whose numbers are not divisible by 2 and 3.

A wheel can be represented by its circumference and the spiked positions.

data Wheel = Wheel Integer [Integer]

We prick out numbers by rolling the wheel.

roll (Wheel n rs) = [n*k+r | k <- [0..], r <- rs]

The smallest wheel is the unit wheel with one spike, it will prick out every number.

w0 = Wheel 1 [1]
We can create a larger wheel by rolling a smaller wheel of circumference
along a rim of circumference
while excluding spike positions at multiples of
nextSize (Wheel n rs) p =
  Wheel (p*n) [r' | k <- [0..(p-1)], r <- rs,
                      let r' = n*k+r, r' `mod` p /= 0]
Combining both, we can make wheels that prick out numbers that avoid a given list
of divisors.
mkWheel ds = foldl nextSize w0 ds

Now, we can generate prime numbers with a wheel that for instance avoids all multiples of 2, 3, 5 and 7.

primes :: [Integer]
primes = small ++ large
    1:p:candidates = roll $ mkWheel small
    small          = [2,3,5,7]
    large          = p : filter isPrime candidates
    isPrime n      = all (not . divides n) 
                       $ takeWhile (\p -> p*p <= n) large
    divides n p    = n `mod` p == 0

It's a pretty big wheel with a circumference of 210 and allows us to calculate the first 10000 primes in convenient time.

A fixed size wheel is fine, but how about adapting the wheel size while generating prime numbers? See Euler's Sieve, or the functional pearl titled Lazy wheel sieves and spirals of primes for more.

3 Using IntSet for a traditional sieve

module Sieve where
import qualified Data.IntSet as I
-- findNext - finds the next member of an IntSet.
findNext c is | I.member c is = c
              | c > I.findMax is = error "Ooops. No next number in set."
              | otherwise = findNext (c+1) is
-- mark - delete all multiples of n from n*n to the end of the set
mark n is = is I.\\ (I.fromAscList (takeWhile (<=end) (map (n*) [n..])))
                    end = I.findMax is
-- primes - gives all primes up to n 
primes n = worker 2 (I.fromAscList [2..n])
                    worker x is 
                     | (x*x) > n = is
                     | otherwise = worker (findNext (x+1) is) (mark x is)

(doesn't look like it runs very efficiently).