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UrlDisp

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(added a "real world" (tm) usage example)
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UrlDisp provides (Fast)CGI programs a minimalistic domain-specific parser for URLs.
 
UrlDisp provides (Fast)CGI programs a minimalistic domain-specific parser for URLs.
   
Hierarchical part of the URL is tokenized and matched against rules defined using UrlDisp combinators. Every rule consists of, basically, a predicate and a CGI action. Once a predicate is satisfied, an action is performed; otherwise, alternatives are tried in order. The matching algorithm is backtracking.
+
Hierarchical part of the URL (e.g., /foo/bar/ or /bar/baz/quix) is tokenized (turned into a list of "URL fragments", e.g. ["foo","bar"]) and matched against rules defined using UrlDisp combinators. Every rule consists of, basically, a predicate and a CGI action. Once a predicate is satisfied, an action is performed; otherwise, alternatives are tried in the order given (<|> associates to the left). The matching algorithm is backtracking.
   
 
== Usage examples ==
 
== Usage examples ==
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<hask>output "hello, world!"</hask>
 
<hask>output "hello, world!"</hask>
   
Adding a predicate:
+
This one replies to all requests with "hello, world!".
  +
  +
One can add a predicate to make things more interesting:
   
 
<hask>
 
<hask>
-- if URL matches /hello, then output "hello, world!"
 
 
h |/ "hello" *> output "hello, world!"</hask>
 
h |/ "hello" *> output "hello, world!"</hask>
   
More examples:
+
This one will greet people only if the URL starts with "/hello". It will give a 404 error page otherwise.
  +
  +
Such "if-then" clauses can be combined using "or" -- (<|>), which associates to the left, so
  +
  +
<hask>a <|> b <|> c</hask>
  +
  +
is equivalent to
  +
  +
<hask>((a <|> b) <|> c)</hask>
  +
  +
Anyway, code using UrlDisp shouldn't depend on this property.
  +
  +
To introduce an "and" in your rule, apply (|/) successively, as in
  +
  +
<hask>h |/ "foo" |/ "bar"</hask>
  +
  +
Generally, other combinators will correspond to "and" and bind stronger than "or". For example:
   
 
<hask>
 
<hask>
-- if URL contains /hello, output "woot, it works!", otherwise check for
+
h |// "GET" |/ "foo" |/ "bar" |? ("cmd", "foo") *> output "hello"
-- /foo
+
<|> endPath |? ("cmd, "bar") *> output "goodbye"
(h |/ "hello" *> output "woot, it works!") <|> (h |/ "foo" *> output "foo")
 
 
</hask>
 
</hask>
   
As you can see, the |/ combinator matches current token against it's right operand. h is a special predicate that matches anything, it is used to begin a string of combinators.
+
Will behave as follows:
  +
* all GET requests to /foo/bar (and anything that follows) and parameter "cmd" set to "foo" will output "hello"
  +
* requests with empty path and parameter cmd set to "bar" will output "goodbye"
  +
* other requests will trigger a 404 page
  +
  +
As you can see, the |/ combinator matches current token against its right operand. h is a special predicate that matches anything, it is used to begin a string of combinators.
   
 
One can also match against
 
One can also match against
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=== Extending UrlDisp ===
 
=== Extending UrlDisp ===
   
The examples given above are not very interesting since one wants to interact with outside world. Let's see how to extend UrlDisp to handle database access.
+
The examples given above are not very interesting since one wants to interact with the outside world. Let's take a look at how to extend UrlDisp to handle database access.
   
 
Wrapping UrlDisp around a ReaderT will do the trick.
 
Wrapping UrlDisp around a ReaderT will do the trick.
   
 
<hask>
 
<hask>
  +
{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances, ScopedTypeVariables #-}
 
import Network.UrlDisp
 
import Network.UrlDisp
 
import Database.HDBC
 
import Database.HDBC
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-- once a request to "/db/" is sent,
 
-- once a request to "/db/" is sent,
-- execute an SQL query and show it's results
+
-- execute an SQL query and show its results
 
main :: IO ()
 
main :: IO ()
 
main = bracket (connectODBC connStr) disconnect
 
main = bracket (connectODBC connStr) disconnect
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m :: UrlDisp (ReaderT Connection (CGIT IO)) CGIResult
 
m :: UrlDisp (ReaderT Connection (CGIT IO)) CGIResult
 
m = do
 
m = do
v <- lift ask >>= \c -> liftIO (quickQuery' c "select * from ..." [])
+
v <- lift ask >>= \c -> liftIO (quickQuery' c queryText [])
 
output $ show v
 
output $ show v
  +
  +
-- you will have to provide this one
  +
queryText = "select * from ..."
 
</hask>
 
</hask>
  +
  +
[[Category:Web]]
  +
[[Category:Packages]]

Latest revision as of 07:30, 26 May 2009

Contents

[edit] 1 What is UrlDisp

[edit] 1.1 Problem statement

URLs are everywhere on the web. Most of them, however, are hard to remember, because they are meaningless for humans. This is wrong: URLs are a part of user interface, and therefore should be kept simple, meaningful and memorizeable.

[edit] 1.2 Solution

UrlDisp provides (Fast)CGI programs a minimalistic domain-specific parser for URLs.

Hierarchical part of the URL (e.g., /foo/bar/ or /bar/baz/quix) is tokenized (turned into a list of "URL fragments", e.g. ["foo","bar"]) and matched against rules defined using UrlDisp combinators. Every rule consists of, basically, a predicate and a CGI action. Once a predicate is satisfied, an action is performed; otherwise, alternatives are tried in the order given (<|> associates to the left). The matching algorithm is backtracking.

[edit] 2 Usage examples

[edit] 2.1 Basics

A regular CGI action looks like this:

output "hello, world!"

This one replies to all requests with "hello, world!".

One can add a predicate to make things more interesting:

h |/ "hello" *> output "hello, world!"

This one will greet people only if the URL starts with "/hello". It will give a 404 error page otherwise.

Such "if-then" clauses can be combined using "or" -- (<|>), which associates to the left, so

a <|> b <|> c

is equivalent to

((a <|> b) <|> c)

Anyway, code using UrlDisp shouldn't depend on this property.

To introduce an "and" in your rule, apply (|/) successively, as in

h |/ "foo" |/ "bar"

Generally, other combinators will correspond to "and" and bind stronger than "or". For example:

h |// "GET" |/ "foo" |/ "bar" |? ("cmd", "foo") *> output "hello"
<|> endPath |? ("cmd, "bar") *> output "goodbye"

Will behave as follows:

  • all GET requests to /foo/bar (and anything that follows) and parameter "cmd" set to "foo" will output "hello"
  • requests with empty path and parameter cmd set to "bar" will output "goodbye"
  • other requests will trigger a 404 page

As you can see, the |/ combinator matches current token against its right operand. h is a special predicate that matches anything, it is used to begin a string of combinators.

One can also match against

  • URL parameters,
  • HTTP methods,
  • and also convert token into a variable which is an instance of Read

There's also an API which is believed to be more human-readable.

[edit] 2.2 Extending UrlDisp

The examples given above are not very interesting since one wants to interact with the outside world. Let's take a look at how to extend UrlDisp to handle database access.

Wrapping UrlDisp around a ReaderT will do the trick.

{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances, ScopedTypeVariables #-}
import Network.UrlDisp
import Database.HDBC
import Database.HDBC.ODBC
import Control.Exception (bracket)
import Network.CGI
import Network.CGI.Monad

instance MonadCGI (ReaderT Connection (CGIT IO)) where
    cgiAddHeader n v = lift $ cgiAddHeader n v
    cgiGet = lift . cgiGet

-- once a request to "/db/" is sent,
-- execute an SQL query and show its results
main :: IO ()
main = bracket (connectODBC connStr) disconnect
    (\c -> runCGI $ (flip runReaderT) c $ evalUrlDisp $
        ((h |/ "db" *> m) <|> output "not found"))

m :: UrlDisp (ReaderT Connection (CGIT IO)) CGIResult
m = do
    v <- lift ask >>= \c -> liftIO (quickQuery' c queryText [])
    output $ show v

-- you will have to provide this one
queryText = "select * from ..."