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(Option 2: Snap + WAI + Yesod)
(Updating option 2 to Yesod + Warp)
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See the [http://happstack.com/index.html Happstack Home Page] for more information and to learn how to get support via IRC and mailing lists.
 
See the [http://happstack.com/index.html Happstack Home Page] for more information and to learn how to get support via IRC and mailing lists.
   
== Option 2: Snap + WAI + Yesod ==
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== Option 2: Yesod + Warp ==
   
(NOTE: This option seems to be wishful thinking as Snap does not support WAI AFAIK - JeremyShaw)
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[http://docs.yesodweb.com/ Yesod] is a full-featured web framework. It takes a modular approach to development, so many parts of the framework such as [http://docs.yesodweb.com/book/templates Hamlet] and [http://docs.yesodweb.com/book/persistent Persistent] are available as standalone packages. However, put together, Yesod provides you with solutions for templating, routing, persistence, sessions, JSON, authentication/authorization, and more. Yesod's major guiding principle is type safety: if your application compiles, it works.
   
[http://docs.yesodweb.com/book/wai/ WAI] and Hack are interfaces between web applications and HTTP servers. In this option, you code the applications that make up your website so that each application implements the WAI interface. So you might have a forum application, a blog application, and a wiki which each implement the WAI interface. Hack is another interface which is simpler to use that WAI but is not quite as powerful. Information about WAI and Hack can be found on Hackage: [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/wai WAI], [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/hack Hack].
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Yesod is very well documented through the [http://docs.yesodweb.com/book Yesod book]. Work is being done on an constant basis to improve the documentation status, but the first ten chapters (covering all the basics) are already done, so it should be easy to get started.
   
[http://docs.yesodweb.com/ Yesod] is a collection of libraries which help you build applications which implement the WAI interface. This includes things like templating, a data persistence layer, building forms, and so on.
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Yesod is built on [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/wai WAI], or the Web Application Interface. This is similar to WSGI in Python or Rack in Ruby. It provides a single interface that all applications can target and work on multiple backends. Backends exist for CGI, FastCGI, SCGI, development server (auto-recompile) and even a Webkit-powered desktop version.
A number of reusable web applications that implement the WAI interface can be found on hackage (''TODO: insert list'')
 
   
You would then use the [http://snapframework.com/ Snap] web server to combine together all the different WAI and Hack web applications, plus a library like [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/web-routes-quasi web-routes-quasi] or something similar to route URLs to the various applications.
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But the premier backend is [http://hackage.haskell.org/package/warp Warp]: a very simple web server which, at the time of writing, is the fastest Haskell has to offer. You can read more in its [http://docs.yesodweb.com/blog/announcing-warp release announcement] and see some [http://docs.yesodweb.com/blog/warp-speed-ahead followup benchmarks]. Warp is already powering Yesod; some other major players that are planning a move are Hoogle and Happstack.
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You can see a [http://wiki.yesodweb.com/Powered%20by%20Yesod list of Yesod-powered sites and packages], or check out the [https://github.com/snoyberg/haskellers source code for Haskellers]. Most discussions for Yesod take place on the [http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/web-devel web-devel list], so feel free to join in and ask any questions you have, the Yesod community is very beginner-friendly.
   
 
== Option 3: (Fast)CGI + WAI + Yesod ==
 
== Option 3: (Fast)CGI + WAI + Yesod ==

Revision as of 04:19, 16 February 2011

Haskell Web Development

Software:
Servers - Libraries - Frameworks
Deploy - Cloud
Interfaces to frameworks
Databases and Persistence
Testing and Verification
Content Management

Community & Research:
Forums and Discussion
Literature (research, talks and blogs)
Existing Haskell web applications
Ongoing projects and ideas

The web development community in Haskell has recently had a large boost in activity, resulting in a plethora of choices in libraries. As usual, a breadth of options is a double edged sword: you can choose the tools more to your style, but it is harder to find quality tools.

Rather than one framework to rule them all, Haskell provides several options. On this page we show a non-inclusive list of options to help the Haskell web programming newbie find which libraries and frameworks work together.

Please join us on the mailing lists to discuss web development in Haskell.

Contents

1 Option 1: Happstack

Happstack is a complete web framework. It is organized as a suite of libraries including:

  • happstack-server: an integrated HTTP server, routing combinators, fileserving, etc
  • happstack-data: datatype serialization and migration support
  • happstack-state (aka macid): an (optional) powerful NoSQL ACID storage system with native support for Haskell types and replication

It also includes integration with many 3rd party libraries including:

Happstack is primarily intended for use on VPS or dedicated hosts, but can be used with CGI via FastCGI or hack.

See the Happstack Home Page for more information and to learn how to get support via IRC and mailing lists.

2 Option 2: Yesod + Warp

Yesod is a full-featured web framework. It takes a modular approach to development, so many parts of the framework such as Hamlet and Persistent are available as standalone packages. However, put together, Yesod provides you with solutions for templating, routing, persistence, sessions, JSON, authentication/authorization, and more. Yesod's major guiding principle is type safety: if your application compiles, it works.

Yesod is very well documented through the Yesod book. Work is being done on an constant basis to improve the documentation status, but the first ten chapters (covering all the basics) are already done, so it should be easy to get started.

Yesod is built on WAI, or the Web Application Interface. This is similar to WSGI in Python or Rack in Ruby. It provides a single interface that all applications can target and work on multiple backends. Backends exist for CGI, FastCGI, SCGI, development server (auto-recompile) and even a Webkit-powered desktop version.

But the premier backend is Warp: a very simple web server which, at the time of writing, is the fastest Haskell has to offer. You can read more in its release announcement and see some followup benchmarks. Warp is already powering Yesod; some other major players that are planning a move are Hoogle and Happstack.

You can see a list of Yesod-powered sites and packages, or check out the source code for Haskellers. Most discussions for Yesod take place on the web-devel list, so feel free to join in and ask any questions you have, the Yesod community is very beginner-friendly.

3 Option 3: (Fast)CGI + WAI + Yesod

This option is similar to Option 2 except we use a webserver like nginx, lighttpd, or Apache. These servers would communicate with your web applications using CGI or FastCGI. See wai-handler-fastcgi for a library which connects FastCGI with the WAI interface. A search for wai-handler shows the various options available. See the deployment chapter of the Yesod book to see how to configure the various servers and FastCGI to host WAI applications.

4 Option 4: Turbinado

TODO: Explain about Turbinado since I don't know anything about it right now

5 Option 5: Salvia

TODO: Explain about Salvia

6 Option 6: Snap + custom code + libraries

In this option, you would write your website to directly use the Snap server. Instead of using an interface like WAI, you would receive requests and generate responses directly to the snap server. Look through the Snap documentation to get started using this option. There are a plethora of libraries to help you:

7 Option 7: (Fast)CGI + custom code + libraries

This is very similar to the previous option, but using CGI or FastCGI to talk to another web server. See this tutorial on simple CGI programming for a simple example.

8 Option 8

Something not listed on this page. There are several web frameworks or libraries in various stages of development like Lemmachine, Haskell on a Horse, mohws, loli, plus probably others which are not listed.