Question about typing
Matt Harden
matth@mindspring.com
Mon, 09 Apr 2001 21:48:27 -0500
I won't try to explain functional dependencies, because I don't
understand them all that well, there is documentation, and others on
this list could explain them much better than I can.
Here is an example of how to implement a polymorphic zip (used together
with the ZipFunctor I defined earlier):
> class Zippable a f b | a -> f b, f b -> a where
> zip :: a -> f b
>
> instance (ZipFunctor f) => Zippable (f a,f b) f (a,b) where
> zip (xs,ys) =
> fmap (,) xs `zap` ys
>
> instance (ZipFunctor f) => Zippable (f a,f b,f c) f (a,b,c) where
> zip (xs,ys,zs) =
> fmap (,,) xs `zap` ys `zap` zs
>
> instance (ZipFunctor f) =>
> Zippable (f a,f b,f c,f d) f (a,b,c,d) where
> zip (xs1,xs2,xs3,xs4) =
> fmap (,,,) xs1 `zap` xs2 `zap` xs3 `zap` xs4
>
> -- Hopefully you can see how to define instances for more tuples
>
Nothing stops us from adding `unzip` to the class as well, but I left
that out to keep it short. Without functional dependencies, the type
system would have difficulty with type inference, and we would have to
put type declarations all over the place when using these classes. By
the way, I should point out that these zip functions aren't used exactly
the same way as the current zip functions. They convert a tuple of
lists into a list of tuples. So, here's a demonstration of the
difference:
> -- here is the old zip3 function
> zip3 [1..5] "abcd" [0.0,3.14] == [(1,'a',0.0),(2,'b',3.14)]
>
> -- and here is the new zip
> zip ([1..5],"abcd",[0.0,3,14]) == [(1,'a',0.0),(2,'b',3.14)]
Yoann Padioleau wrote:
>
> Matt Harden <matth@mindspring.com> writes:
> >
> > zip :: ZipFunctor f => f a -> f b -> f (a,b)
> > zip = zipWith (,)
> > zip3 :: ZipFunctor f => f a -> f b -> f c -> f (a,b,c)
> > zip3 = zipWith3 (,,)
> >
> > One can easily create ZipFunctor instances for trees and other data
> > structures. I can provide examples if you like. With multiple
> > parameter type classes (MPTCs, they are not in Haskell 98) as well as
> > functional dependencies (also not in h98), one can also create a
> > "Zippable" class to generalize the zip function over multiple tuple
> > types and eliminate zip3, zip4, etc.
>
> can you explain how you do that ?? (i dont know what is
> functional dependencies, but i think i understand multiple parameter type classes
> and i dont see how do make something that avoid to define a zip3 zip4 ....
>
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