# [Haskell-cafe] Is this a useful higher-order function, or should I RTFM?

Steven Huwig shuwig at columbus.rr.com
Fri Dec 3 13:28:18 EST 2004

```I am basically a newbie at Haskell, and have been experimenting with
it where typically I would use Python.  One source of frustration I
had with the standard library is that "words . unwords" is not an
identity function.  I would like to perform per-word transformations
and predicates while preserving whitespace.  So I implemented
wordsAndSpaces and unwordsAndSpaces, which I believe to be a decent
way to get that kind of behavior.  In working on this problem, I
realized that I was looking for a pair of higher-order functions. My
code and an example of usage is below:

--

unravel :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([[a]], [[a]], Int)
unravel _ [] = ([], [], 0)
unravel p xs = unravel' ([],[], if p (head xs) then 0 else 1) p xs

unravel' :: ([[a]], [[a]], Int) -> (a-> Bool) -> [a] -> ([[a]], [[a]],
Int)
unravel' (sheep, goats, pos) _ [] = (reverse sheep, reverse goats, pos)
unravel' acc@(sheep, goats, pos) p rest@(x:xs)
| p x = unravel' addSheep p (dropWhile p xs)
| otherwise = unravel' addGoat p (dropWhile (not . p) xs)
where addSheep = ((takeWhile p rest):sheep, goats, pos)
addGoat = (sheep, (takeWhile (not . p) rest):goats, pos)

ravel :: [a] -> ([[a]], [[a]], Int) -> [a]
ravel zero (sheep, goats, pos)
| length sheep > length goats =
concat (zipWith (++) sheep (goats ++ repeat zero))
| length sheep < length goats =
concat (zipWith (++) goats (sheep ++ repeat zero))
| pos == 0 = concat (zipWith (++) sheep goats)
| otherwise = concat (zipWith (++) goats sheep)

initcap :: String -> String
initcap (c:cs) = toUpper c:[toLower c' | c' <- cs]

wordsAndSpaces = unravel (not . isSpace)
unwordsAndSpaces = ravel ""

teststr = "This is a test\n A very\t\t good\ntest"

main = (putStrLn . unwordsAndSpaces) (map initcap words, spaces, pos)
where (words, spaces, pos) = wordsAndSpaces teststr

--

So unravel takes a predicate and a list, and returns a tuple of two
lists -- the first is a list of lists of consecutive elements where
predicate is true, and the second where they are false. Its opposite
ravel takes a zero element -- to pad out fenceposts -- and the output of
unravel, and returns the lists all concatenated together.

1) Did I miss something in the Prelude or standard library that gives
me this functionality, or something close to it?

2) Do unravel and ravel have any other practical uses on their own?
Looking at it, I think they could be used in a single function
of type
f :: (a->Bool) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a]
that would encapsulate both. E.g.
mapWords = f (not . isSpace)
main =  putStrLn (mapWords initcap "lots  \tof\nwhitespace")

(syntax not checked for sanity)
Can one get that function out of the Prelude in an easier manner than
above? Is there a simpler way to get that functionality besides
composing ravel and unravel with a map in between?

3) The 3-tuple output of unravel looks ugly to me, but I can't think
of an alternative. For the case where there is an equal number of
p-groups and not-p-groups, we need to know which side to start the
zipWith. Does anyone have a better way?

Any comments and criticism are welcome.

-- Steven Huwig

```