[Haskell-cafe] Commutative monads vs Applicative functors
dave at zednenem.com
Wed May 14 12:59:11 EDT 2008
On Tue, May 13, 2008 at 9:06 PM, Ronald Guida <oddron at gmail.com> wrote:
> I have a few questions about commutative monads and applicative functors.
> >From what I have read about applicative functors, they are weaker than
> monads because with a monad, I can use the results of a computation to
> select between alternative future computations and their side effects,
> whereas with an applicative functor, I can only select between the
> results of computations, while the structure of those computations and
> their side effects are fixed in advance.
> But then there are commutative monads. I'm not exactly sure what a
> commutative monad is, but my understanding is that in a commutative
> monad the order of side effects does not matter.
> This leads me to wonder, are commutative monads still stronger than
> applicative functors, or are they equivalent?
> And by the way, what exactly is a commutative monad?
A monad is commutative if the expression "a >>= \x -> b >>= \y -> f x
y" is equivalent to "b >>= \y -> a >>= \x -> f x y". The identity,
state reader, and maybe monads are commutative, for example.
To put it another way, a monad is commutative if
liftM2 f a b = liftM2 (flip f) b a
Since liftA2 generalizes liftM2, we can also say that an applicative
functor is commutative if
liftA2 f a b = liftA2 (flip f) b a
Or, put another way, if
a <*> b = flip ($) <$> b <*> a
If w is a commutative monoid (that is, if mappend w1 w2 == mappend w2
w1), then Const w is a commutative applicative functor.
To summarize: some applicative functors are commutative, some
applicative functors are monads, and the ones that are both are
Dave Menendez <dave at zednenem.com>
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