[Haskell-cafe] Random number example
Ross Mellgren
rmm-haskell at z.odi.ac
Thu Apr 23 11:51:08 EDT 2009
So there are a couple problems. First is you are trying to rebind
prelude functions, when instead you should be creating an instance of
Monad. This requires a bit of shuffling because without language
extensions you can't instance Monad Random for your type of Random, as
it is a type synonym. So, changing the type synonym to a newtype and
instancing monad, you get:
module Rand9b where
import Control.Applicative (Applicative(..), (<$>), (<*>))
import Control.Monad (ap, liftM)
type Seed = Int
newtype Random a = Rand { unRand :: (Seed -> (a, Seed)) }
randomNext :: Seed -> Seed
randomNext rand = if newRand > 0 then newRand else newRand + 2147483647
where newRand = 16807 * lo - 2836 * hi
(hi,lo) = rand `divMod` 127773
rollDie :: Random Int
rollDie = Rand $ \ seed -> ((seed `mod` 6) + 1, randomNext seed)
instance Monad Random where
(>>=) = randomBind
return = randomReturn
instance Functor Random where
fmap = liftM
instance Applicative Random where
pure = return
(<*>) = ap
randomBind :: Random a -> (a -> Random b) -> Random b
m `randomBind` g = Rand $ \seed0 ->
let (result1, seed1) = unRand m $ seed0
(result2, seed2) = unRand (g result1) $ seed1
in (result2, seed2)
randomReturn :: a -> Random a
randomReturn x = Rand $ \ seed0 -> (x, seed0)
sumTwoDice :: Random Int
sumTwoDice = (+) <$> rollDie <*> rollDie
I also threw in instances of Functor and Applicative, so that I could
simplify sumTwoDice using applicative form (much nicer, no?
Applicative is totally rockin')
Now you need one more thing, a way to convert a series of Random
actions into a pure function:
runRandom :: Seed -> Random a -> a
runRandom s f = fst . unRand f $ s
which now makes what you want to do in GHCi easy and well wrapped:
Prelude> :reload
[1 of 1] Compiling Rand9b ( rand9b.hs, interpreted )
Ok, modules loaded: Rand9b.
*Rand9b> runRandom 0 sumTwoDice
3
Hope this helps,
-Ross
On Apr 23, 2009, at 11:28 AM, michael rice wrote:
> I pretty much followed the sequence of steps that led to this final
> code (see below), but will be looking it over for a while to make
> sure it sinks in. In the meantime, I get this when I try to use it
> (sumTwoDice) at the command line:
>
> [michael at localhost ~]$ ghci rand9
> GHCi, version 6.10.1: http://www.haskell.org/ghc/ :? for help
> Loading package ghc-prim ... linking ... done.
> Loading package integer ... linking ... done.
> Loading package base ... linking ... done.
> [1 of 1] Compiling Main ( rand9.hs, interpreted )
> Ok, modules loaded: Main.
> *Main> sumTwoDice
>
> <interactive>:1:0:
> No instance for (Show (Seed -> (Int, Seed)))
> arising from a use of `print' at <interactive>:1:0-9
> Possible fix:
> add an instance declaration for (Show (Seed -> (Int, Seed)))
> In a stmt of a 'do' expression: print it
> *Main>
>
>
> Can I employ a 'do' expression from the command line?
>
> Also, can I now use functions (>>) (>>=) and 'return' defined in the
> Prelude and still have this code work?
>
> Michael
>
> ==================
>
> {-# LANGUAGE NoImplicitPrelude #-}
>
> import Prelude hiding ((>>), (>>=), return)
>
> type Seed = Int
> type Random a = Seed -> (a, Seed)
>
> randomNext :: Seed -> Seed
> randomNext rand = if newRand > 0 then newRand else newRand +
> 2147483647
> where newRand = 16807 * lo - 2836 * hi
> (hi,lo) = rand `divMod` 127773
>
> rollDie :: Random Int
> rollDie seed = ((seed `mod` 6) + 1, randomNext seed)
>
> (>>) :: Random a -> Random b -> Random b
> (>>) m n = \seed0 ->
> let (result1, seed1) = m seed0
> (result2, seed2) = n seed1
> in (result2, seed2)
>
> (>>=) :: Random a -> (a -> Random b) -> Random b
> (>>=) m g = \seed0 ->
> let (result1, seed1) = m seed0
> (result2, seed2) = (g result1) seed1
> in (result2, seed2)
>
> return :: a -> Random a
> return x = \seed0 -> (x, seed0)
>
> sumTwoDice :: Random Int
> sumTwoDice = rollDie >>= (\die1 -> rollDie >>= (\die2 -> return
> (die1 + die2)))
>
>
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