[Haskell-cafe] Generate random UArray in constant memory space.
Daniel Fischer
daniel.is.fischer at web.de
Tue Feb 9 12:13:51 EST 2010
Am Tuesday 09 February 2010 15:43:13 schrieben Sie:
> Update:
>
> I've implemented `enumFromToU` through `unfoldU`:
> > enumFromToU' from to = unfoldU (to - from) f from
> > where f i = let i' = i + 1 in JustS (i' :*: i')
>
> This code behaves similarly to `enumFromToU` (i.e. constantly uses ~25
> kb of memory, runs in the same time as above).
Wait,
$ cat venum2.hs
module Main (main) where
import Text.Printf
import Control.Applicative
import System.Environment
import Data.Array.Vector
main = do
[size] <- map read <$> getArgs
let ints = enumFromToU' 0 size :: UArr Int
printf "%d\n" (sumU ints)
enumFromToU' from to = unfoldU (to - from) f from
where f i = let i' = i + 1 in JustS (i' :*: i')
$ ghc -O2 --make venum2
[1 of 1] Compiling Main ( venum2.hs, venum2.o )
Linking venum2 ...
$ ./venum2 +RTS -sstderr -RTS 1000000
./venum2 1000000 +RTS -sstderr
1784293664
48,256,384 bytes allocated in the heap
6,256 bytes copied during GC
26,804 bytes maximum residency (1 sample(s))
25,524 bytes maximum slop
1 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to fragmentation)
$ ./venum2 +RTS -sstderr -RTS 10000000
./venum2 10000000 +RTS -sstderr
-2004260032
481,937,552 bytes allocated in the heap
19,516 bytes copied during GC
26,804 bytes maximum residency (1 sample(s))
25,512 bytes maximum slop
1 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to fragmentation)
So we have constant memory, but linear allocation, just like with the
random numbers.
With enumFromToU, also the allocation is constant, so unfoldU allocates,
enumFromToU not.
>
> So the question is why random number list generator eats O(n) memory ?
It doesn't, not here, at least. Using System.Random, the allocation figures
are about ten times as high, but the residency is about the same.
Putting the PRNG code in the same file and tweaking things a bit
(eliminating all intermediate Integers, e.g.), I get
$ cat ran2Vec.hs
{-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns #-}
module Main (main) where
import Text.Printf
import Control.Applicative
import System.Environment
import Data.Array.Vector
randomListU :: (Int, Int) -> StdGen -> Int -> (UArr Int)
randomListU b@(l,h) g size = unfoldU size gen g
where
!k = h-l+1
!b' = 2147483561 `rem` k
gen !g = let (!x, !g') = stdNext g
in JustS ((l+ (x+b') `rem` k) :*: g')
main = do
[size] <- map read <$> getArgs
let ints = randomListU (-10, 10) (mkStdGen 1) size
printf "%d\n" (sumU ints)
data StdGen = StdGen {-# UNPACK #-} !Int {-# UNPACK #-} !Int
mkStdGen :: Int -> StdGen
mkStdGen s
| s < 0 = mkStdGen (-s)
| otherwise = StdGen (s1+1) (s2+1)
where
(q, s1) = s `divMod` 2147483562
s2 = q `mod` 2147483398
{-# INLINE stdNext #-}
stdNext :: StdGen -> (Int, StdGen)
-- Returns values in the range stdRange
stdNext (StdGen s1 s2) = z' `seq` g' `seq` (z', g')
where
!g' = StdGen s1'' s2''
!z' = if z < 1 then z + 2147483562 else z
!z = s1'' - s2''
!k = s1 `quot` 53668
!s1' = 40014 * (s1 - k * 53668) - k * 12211
!s1'' = if s1' < 0 then s1' + 2147483563 else s1'
!k' = s2 `quot` 52774
!s2' = 40692 * (s2 - k' * 52774) - k' * 3791
!s2'' = if s2' < 0 then s2' + 2147483399 else s2'
$ ghc -O2 -funbox-strict-fields -funfolding-use-threshold=16 --make
ran2Vec -o ran2AVec5
Linking ran2AVec5 ...
$ ./ran2AVec5 +RTS -sstderr -RTS 10000000
./ran2AVec5 10000000 +RTS -sstderr
5130
521,828,888 bytes allocated in the heap
8,664 bytes copied during GC
26,788 bytes maximum residency (1 sample(s))
25,636 bytes maximum slop
1 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to fragmentation)
nearly the same allocation figures as for the *much* simpler enumFromToU',
and it's about ten times as fast as System.Random.
>
> Regards,
> Vasyl Pasternak
>
> 2010/2/9 Vasyl Pasternak <vasyl.pasternak at gmail.com>:
> > Sorry, maybe I should ask more clearer.
> >
> > I've looked at dons article "Haskell as fast as C"[1], and tried to
> > implement similar algorithm but for list of random numbers.
> >
> > Please look at code:
> >> import Text.Printf
> >> import Control.Applicative
> >> import System.Environment
> >> import Data.Array.Vector
> >>
> >> main = do
> >> [size] <- map read <$> getArgs
> >> let ints = enumFromToU 0 size :: UArr Int
> >> printf "%d\n" (sumU ints)
> >
> > This code runs in constant space (on my pc ~25kb allocates on the
> > heap) regardless of array size. So I tried to achieve similar with
> > random list, just to replace `enumFromToU` with my own list generator.
> >
> > So the question - is it possible to implement random list similary to
> > enumFromToU?
> >
> >
> > [1]http://donsbot.wordpress.com/2008/06/04/haskell-as-fast-as-c-workin
> >g-at-a-high-altitude-for-low-level-performance/
> >
> > Thank you,
> > Vasyl Pasternak
> >
> > 2010/2/9 Daniel Fischer <daniel.is.fischer at web.de>:
> >> Am Dienstag 09 Februar 2010 13:18:23 schrieb Vasyl Pasternak:
> >>> Hello Cafe,
> >>>
> >>> I tried to generate memory-efficient list of random numbers, so I've
> >>> used uvector library for this task. But it doesn't work,
> >>> it still allocates more than 6Gb of memory for the random list of 10
> >>>
> >>> million elements. Here is the code:
> >>
> >> Hmm,
> >>
> >> $ ghc -O2 --make ranVec
> >> [1 of 1] Compiling Main ( ranVec.hs, ranVec.o )
> >> Linking ranVec ...
> >> $ ./ranVec 10000000 +RTS -sstderr
> >> 5130
> >> 4,919,912,080 bytes allocated in the heap
> >> 883,256 bytes copied during GC
> >> 26,896 bytes maximum residency (1 sample(s))
> >> 25,620 bytes maximum slop
> >> 1 MB total memory in use (0 MB lost due to
> >> fragmentation)
> >>
> >> maximum residency is just eight bytes more than for 100,000 or
> >> 1,000,000 numbers. I think that is constant space.
> >>
> >> The ~5 GB total allocation is sequential, ten million new StdGens are
> >> produced and allocated, then immediately garbage collected. I see no
> >> problem (except that StdGen is slow, e.g. the Mersenne twister is
> >> much faster [and allocates less, but still linear in size]).
> >>
> >>> > import Text.Printf
> >>> > import System.Random
> >>> > import Control.Applicative
> >>> > import System.Environment
> >>> > import Data.Array.Vector
> >>> >
> >>> > randomListU :: (Int, Int) -> StdGen -> Int -> (UArr Int)
> >>> > randomListU b g size = unfoldU size gen g
> >>> > where gen g = let (x, g') = randomR b g
> >>> > in JustS (x :*: g')
> >>> >
> >>> > main = do
> >>> > [size] <- map read <$> getArgs
> >>> > let ints = randomListU (-10, 10) (mkStdGen 1) size
> >>> > printf "%d\n" (sumU ints)
> >>>
> >>> Could someone give a hint, how to implement this function in
> >>> constant memory space?
> >>>
> >>> Thank you in advance.
> >>>
> >>> Best regards,
> >>> Vasyl Pasternak
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