[Haskell-cafe] Re: Do expression definition
wren ng thornton
wren at freegeek.org
Thu Sep 16 00:17:36 EDT 2010
On 9/13/10 6:22 AM, Michael Lazarev wrote:
> Thanks for examples and pointers.
> Since I came from Lisp, it never occurred to me that let and lambda
> are different constructs in Haskell.
> I thought that
> let x = y in f
> is really
> (\x -> f) y
> It turns out that let is about declarations which are not the same as
> function applications above.
Right. This is a common mistake for people coming from Lisp, Scheme, and
other untyped lambda calculi. In the untyped world it's fine to conflate
let and lambda, because they only differ in how they're typed (and if
you have no types...).
The difference is that, for let-bindings, once you've figured out a type
of the variable being bound, then that type can be "generalized". The
exact process of generalization has some subtle details to watch out
for, but suffice it to say that certain type variables are allowed to
become universally quantified. Which means that you're allowed to use x
at different types within f, provided all those different types are
consistent with the generalized type.
Whereas, lambda-bindings don't get generalized, and so they'll always be
monomorphic (assuming Hindley--Milner inference without extensions like
-XRankNTypes). This is necessary in order to catch numerous type errors,
though Haskell lets you override this behavior by giving an explicitly
polymorphic type signature if you have -XRankNTypes enabled.
FWIW, a lot of the tricky details about generalization come from the way
that Hindley--Milner inference is usually described. That is, since HM
only allows prenex universal quantification, the quantifiers are usually
left implicit. This in turn means it's not always clear when the
unification variables used in type inference are actual type variables
vs not. If we assume System F types instead and make all the quantifiers
explicit, then it becomes much easier to explain the generalization
process because we're being explicit about where variables are bound.
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