[Haskell-cafe] Church vs Boehm-Berarducci encoding of Lists
Jay Sulzberger
jays at panix.com
Thu Sep 20 21:54:53 CEST 2012
On Thu, 20 Sep 2012, oleg at okmij.org wrote:
>
> Dan Doel wrote:
>>>> P.S. It is actually possible to write zip function using Boehm-Berarducci
>>>> encoding:
>>>> http://okmij.org/ftp/Algorithms.html#zip-folds
>>
>> If you do, you might want to consider not using the above method, as I
>> seem to recall it doing an undesirable amount of extra work (repeated
>> O(n) tail).
> It is correct. The Boehm-Berarducci web page discusses at some extent
> the general inefficiency of the encoding, the need for repeated
> reflections and reifications for some (but not all) operations. That
> is why arithmetic on Church numerals is generally a bad idea.
>
> A much better encoding of numerals is what I call P-numerals
> http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/lambda-calc.html#p-numerals
> It turns out, I have re-discovered them after Michel Parigot (so my
> name P-numerals is actually meaningful). Not only they are faster; one
> can _syntactically_ prove that PRED . SUCC is the identity.
What is the setup that, here, gives the distinction between a
syntactic proof and some other kind of proof?
oo--JS.
>
> The general idea of course is Goedel's recursor R.
>
> R b a 0 = a
> R b a (Succ n) = b n (R b a n)
>
> which easily generalizes to lists. The enclosed code shows the list
> encoding that has constant-time cons, head, tail and trivially
> expressible fold and zip.
>
>
> Kim-Ee Yeoh wrote:
>> So properly speaking, tail and pred for Church-encoded lists and nats
>> are trial-and-error affairs. But the point is they need not be if we
>> use B-B encoding, which looks _exactly_ the same, except one gets a
>> citation link to a systematic procedure.
>>
>> So it looks like you're trying to set the record straight on who actually
>> did what.
>
> Exactly. Incidentally, there is more than one way to build a
> predecessor of Church numerals. Kleene's solution is not the only
> one. Many years ago I was thinking on this problem and designed a
> different predecessor:
>
> excerpted from http://okmij.org/ftp/Haskell/LC_neg.lhs
>
>
> One ad hoc way of defining a predecessor of a positive numeral
> predp cn+1 ==> cn
> is to represent "predp cn" as "cn f v"
> where f and v are so chosen that (f z) acts as
> if z == v then c0 else (succ z)
> We know that z can be either a numeral cn or a special value v. All
> Church numerals have a property that (cn combI) is combI: the identity
> combinator is a fixpoint of every numeral. Therefore, ((cn combI) (succ
> cn)) reduces to (succ cn). We only need to choose the value v in such
> a way that ((v I) (succ v)) yields c0.
>
> > predp = eval $
> > c ^ c
> > # (z ^ (z # combI # (succ # z))) -- function f(z)
> > # (a ^ x ^ c0) -- value v
>
>
> {-# LANGUAGE Rank2Types #-}
>
> -- List represented with R
>
> newtype R x = R{unR :: forall w.
> -- b
> (x -> R x -> w -> w)
> -- a
> -> w
> -- result
> -> w}
>
> nil :: R x
> nil = R (\b a -> a)
>
> -- constant type
> cons :: x -> R x -> R x
> cons x r = R(\b a -> b x r (unR r b a))
>
> -- constant time
> rhead :: R x -> x
> rhead (R fr) = fr (\x _ _ -> x) (error "head of the empty list")
>
> -- constant time
> rtail :: R x -> R x
> rtail (R fr) = fr (\_ r _ -> r) (error "tail of the empty list")
>
> -- fold
> rfold :: (x -> w -> w) -> w -> R x -> w
> rfold f z (R fr) = fr (\x _ w -> f x w) z
>
> -- zip is expressed via fold
> rzipWith :: (x -> y -> z) -> R x -> R y -> R z
> rzipWith f r1 r2 = rfold f' z r1 r2
> where f' x tD = \r2 -> cons (f x (rhead r2)) (tD (rtail r2))
> z = \_ -> nil
>
> -- tests
>
> toR :: [a] -> R a
> toR = foldr cons nil
>
> toL :: R a -> [a]
> toL = rfold (:) []
>
>
> l1 = toR [1..10]
> l2 = toR "abcde"
>
>
> t1 = toL $ rtail l2
> -- "bcde"
>
> t2 = toL $ rzipWith (,) l2 l1
> -- [('a',1),('b',2),('c',3),('d',4),('e',5)]
>
More information about the Haskell-Cafe
mailing list