[Haskell] Matrix multiplication
Don Stewart
dons at galois.com
Tue Apr 29 18:46:50 EDT 2008
The other thing here is that he's using unboxed, nested arrays in C,
while using naive lists in Haskell.
To actually compare them, you'd need to use nested STUArrays.
Hopefully we'll have a library for these soon (as a result of the ndp
lib). Otherwise, use on one of the matrix libraries (hmatrix/
gslhaskell)
For non-nested arrays, we can do rather well with:
import Data.Array.Vector
n :: Int
n = 4000
main = print (sumU (zipWithU (*) a b))
where
a = replicateU n (2::Double)
b = mapU realToFrac $ enumFromToU 0 (n-1)
Which compiles to some nicely fused unboxed loops.
The trick is to get this working with nested arrays.
The ndp library looks like our best bet here:
darcs.haskell.org/packages/ndp
-- Don
tim:
> On Thu, 24 Apr 2008 04:01:50 Tillmann Vogt wrote:
> > Hi,
> >
> > I am currently experimenting with parallelizing C-programs. I have
> > therefore written a matrix vector multiplication example that needs 13
> > seconds to run (5 seconds with OpenMP). Because I like Haskell I did the
> > same in this language, but it takes about 134 seconds. Why is it so
> > slow? Does someone have an idea?
> >
> >
> > module Main where
> >
> > main = do putStrLn (show (stupid_mul 100))
> > putStrLn "100 multiplications done"
> >
> > stupid_mul 0 = []
> > stupid_mul it = (s_mul it) : stupid_mul (it-1) -- without "it" after
> > s_mul only one multiplication is executed
> >
> > s_mul it = mul (replicate 4000 [0..3999]) (replicate 4000 2)
> >
> > mul :: [[Double]] -> [Double] -> [Double]
> > mul [] _ = []
> > mul (b:bs) c | sp==0 = sp : (mul bs c) -- always false, force evaluation
> >
> > | otherwise = (mul bs c)
> >
> > where sp = (scalar b c)
> >
> > scalar :: [Double] -> [Double] -> Double
> > scalar _ [] = 0
> > scalar [] _ = 0
> > scalar (v:vs) (w:ws) = (v*w) + (skalar vs ws)
> >
> >
> >
> > and here the C-program
> >
> > #include <stdio.h>
> > #include <stdlib.h>
> > #include <time.h>
> >
> > #define M 4000
> > #define N 4000
> > #define IT 100
> >
> > double a[M], b[M][N], c[N];
> >
> > int main(int argc, char *argv[])
> > {
> > double d;
> > int i, j, l;
> > time_t start,end;
> >
> > printf("Initializing matrix B and vector C\n");
> > for(j=0; j<N; j++) c[j] = 2.0;
> > for(i=0; i<M; i++) for(j=0; j<N; j++) b[i][j] = j;
> >
> > printf("Executing %d matrix mult. for M = %d N = %d\n",IT,M,N);
> > time (&start);
> >
> > for(l=0; l<IT; l++)
> >
> > #pragma omp parallel for default(none) \
> > shared(a,b,c) private(i,j,l)
> >
> > for(i=0; i<M; i++)
> > {
> > a[i] = 0.0;
> > for (j=0; j<N; j++) a[i] += b[i][j]*c[j];
> > }
> > time (&end);
> >
> > d = difftime (end,start);
> > printf ("calculation time: %.2lf seconds\n", d );
> > return 0;
> > }
> > _______________________________________________
> > Haskell mailing list
> > Haskell at haskell.org
> > http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell
>
> You haven't even told us which compilers you're using so it's pretty difficult
> to do. I can't even get your code to compile - there are typos in it so
> you've obviously altered it since compiling yourself.
>
> While this program may be wrong, I've dashed off this attempt that takes about
> 1.3 seconds on my not-too-powerful machine:
>
> module Main
> where
>
> import Control.Monad
>
> rows = 4000
> cols = 4000
> iterations = 100
>
> main = do
> let
> vector :: [Double]
> vector = replicate cols 2.0
> matrix :: [[Double]]
> matrix = replicate rows (map fromIntegral [0..cols-1])
> a = map (sum . (zipWith (*) vector)) matrix
> replicateM_ iterations (putStrLn (show a))
>
> Those who understand how Haskell programs are executed will now be
> screaming "cheating!". This program when optimised by GHC (which I use) will
> only actually do the calculation once and print it 100 times. That is, after
> all, the same output you asked for. It may even be taking more shortcuts
> using identities around map and replicate but I'm not sure.
>
> When mapping imperative languages to functional ones a little understanding of
> how it is executed goes a long way. Performance of your programs will benefit
> immensely if you know how your program will be run. I'm new to Haskell but
> have already realised that performance can be altered by orders of magnitude
> by making possible optimisations more visible to the compiler with how things
> are set out.
>
> P.S. I would really recommend increasing use of higher level functions such as
> map. They make code much more readable and the most common also receive
> special optimisations from many compilers.
>
> Cheers,
>
> Tim
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