(a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] -parallel +base
map f xs is the list obtained by applying f to each element of xs, i.e.,
> map f [x1, x2, ..., xn] == [f x1, f x2, ..., f xn]
> map f [x1, x2, ...] == [f x1, f x2, ...]
Lift a function to actions. This function may be used as a value for fmap in a Functor instance.
This function may be used as a value for fmap in a Functor instance.
An infix synonym for fmap.
Promote a function to a monad.
A variant of <*> with the arguments reversed.
iterate f x returns an infinite list of repeated applications of f to x:
> iterate f x == [x, f x, f (f x), ...]
dropWhile p xs returns the suffix remaining after takeWhile p xs:
> dropWhile (< 3) [1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3] == [3,4,5,1,2,3]
> dropWhile (< 9) [1,2,3] == 
> dropWhile (< 0) [1,2,3] == [1,2,3]
filter, applied to a predicate and a list, returns the list of those elements that satisfy the predicate; i.e.,
> filter p xs = [ x | x <- xs, p x]
takeWhile, applied to a predicate p and a list xs, returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs of elements that satisfy p:
> takeWhile (< 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] == [1,2]
> takeWhile (< 9) [1,2,3] == [1,2,3]
> takeWhile (< 0) [1,2,3] == 
Application operator. This operator is redundant, since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). However, $ has low, right-associative binding precedence, so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted; for example:
> f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x))
It is also useful in higher-order situations, such as map ($ 0) xs, or Data.List.zipWith ($) fs xs.
Strict (call-by-value) application, defined in terms of seq.
Applied to a predicate and a list, all determines if all elements of the list satisfy the predicate. For the result to be True, the list must be finite; False, however, results from a False value for the predicate applied to an element at a finite index of a finite or infinite list.
Applied to a predicate and a list, any determines if any element of the list satisfies the predicate. For the result to be False, the list must be finite; True, however, results from a True value for the predicate applied to an element at a finite index of a finite or infinite list.
In many situations, the liftM operations can be replaced by uses of ap, which promotes function application.
> return f `ap` x1 `ap` ... `ap` xn
is equivalent to
> liftMn f x1 x2 ... xn
The sortWith function sorts a list of elements using the user supplied function to project something out of each element
This function may be used as a value for Data.Foldable.foldMap in a Foldable instance.
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